Articles

A).   Integrated Energy.

Pakistan is facing extreme energy crisis, hence for to produce energy to meet the requirements following are the most important sectors according to the priority.

i) Hydraulic Power Generation:-
  Pakistan is blessed in regard the natural sources of flowing water available in form of many rivers and water channels, which starts flowing from the ice melting high mountains to sea. Pakistan is also blessed by large catchments basins of precipitation either in the form of ice or rain.

Hence to meet the energy crisis the Hydraulic Power Energy Generation based which is definitely environment friendly along with such Hydraulic Power Generation will help to store water and to meet the requirements of irrigation for the crops even such Hydraulic Power Generation can also be helpful to raise the ground water table as well and will be helpful for plantation as well and to develop beautiful resorts regarding tourism too around such Dams.

Pakistan by the grace of nature has big capacity to produce Hydraulic Power Generation based on the heads available to produce drop fall of water having good quantum of Potential Energy along with quantum and that Potential Energy be further converted into mechanical and then to electrical energy. Hence available head and quantum along with sustainability and feasibility of the sites are important to be worked on as the yield is also very important to design any such projects.

ii) Coal Energy:-
  As per the information achieved by media, Pakistan has a lot reserves regarding coal which can be utilized as fuel to produce other forms of fuel like diesel and to burn the coal directly itself to produce electrical energy. Also such big reserve clearly indicates that there must be sufficient reserve of other kinds of fuel as well.
iii) Solar Energy:-
  Pakistan is enriched with solar source and hence Solar Energy can also be produced but its feasibility in totality regarding its original investment and then the cost of operation and maintenance and its sustainable life are important to be taken under consideration in detail.
iv) Atomic Energy:-
  Pakistan has the technology of Atomic Energy hence the Atomic Energy should be utilized for the generation of electricity which is one of the best sources.
v) Wind Energy:-
  Pakistan has a lot potential in the costal areas along with Karachi up to Makran and Gawadar where sufficient high velocity wind is available also there are many other areas where due to weather environment and temperature differences in the neighboring areas sufficient wind blow is available by the grace of nature hence all such areas including high hill tops, which can be helpful in production of electricity through wind and the Kinetic Energy of wind can be converted into mechanical form and then to produce electricity hence it is another environment friendly source which does not disturb or to burn other valuable sources. Hence is also one of the good sources of energy which can be availed.
vi) Burning of Fuel:-
  All such sources in which fuels other than coal are burned to produce electricity must be discouraged as on one hand it is burning the fuel source of world which may be required for coming generations also to import fuel costs a lot to Pakistan and drains its economic reserves as well, also cause pollution.
vii) Community bio gas plants:-
  By having more cattle and sheep forms bio gas plants can be helpful to produce fuel by acetylene gas to burn and may be helpful to run generators to produce electricity.
viii) Garbage based energy generation:-
  Garbage is another good source to be decomposed to produce gas fuel.

    Conclusion:-

All such sources which are environment friendly and does not waste other sources of energy must be preferred and focused on in which Hydraulic Power Generation, Wind mills, Solar Energy, Atomic Energy and coal based electricity production must be preferred relying over the sources present in Pakistan.

C).   Private Sector Led Growth.

Pakistan needs serious changes in its system which are not proper to be discussed here but the most important is that the Government Hierarchy of Pakistan needs to be rationalized and the unnecessary growth of Government machinery is needing to be curtailed along with the remuneration of Government machinery needs to be rationalized along with proper screening and competence with intention to be observed at every level.

“Right person to be placed on right job.”

The politicization and favoritism in Government Hierarchy must be extinguished. As only a healthy, free of corruption and Just Government machinery can be helpful in Private Sector Led Growth.

As over expanded, politicized, incompetent, under paid, sick, inhuman, unjust and by compulsion corrupt Government machinery is the basic obstacle for the private enterprises and economic growth of Pakistan.

There must be soft loaning available for properly qualified people to be provided against their academic records to let them place their ideas in form of feasibility or proposals and such proposals must be scrutinized  by some appropriate official forum but first must have recommendation of board of Commerce in Private Sector to accomplish any such proposal to be placed before the forum and then against valuable proposals soft loans be available with such legislations that such loaning must not be wasted. All the private sector representative forums must place their proposals regarding all the issues they are facing as obstacles and after sufficient loud thinking and after well working in detail on their issues the obstacles and solutions be addressed and where required all the defective laws be abolished and better legislation with consent of competent and concerned people after well thought and well worked process be adopted.

The system of taxation is to be privatized as the tolls in Pakistan and only Taxation Courts are to be established on Division levels to settle the issues. Very simple and easy to under stand system of taxation is requiring to be introduced.

E).             Modernization of Existing Infrastructure.

Infrastructure development must be according to international standards. Hence right sizing and capacity building of infrastructure building departments is required. Also there must be only one department regarding infrastructure development having all the sectors under one Government Department and may have bifurcation of Urban and Rural. Such mechanism may help to avoid overlapping, fudge and unorganized development having grade (B-20) posts at district levels and then grade (B-21) posts at Division levels and grade (B-22) posts to head such Department at provincial and state levels. All international standards must strictly be observed in building sustainable infrastructure. Public participation can be a good tool to have sustainable projects and the beneficiary community must have a sense of ownership also the demand driven projects should be preferred. Right sizing of concerned Departments, Expert ism, Capacity Building of concerned Departments and Right person on right job can produce better results along with trust over right parsons placed on right jobs to be helpful to deliver. I am incorporating here my exclusive input regarding the construction of roads in AJK.

Suggestions for improvement in roads construction, especially for AJK.

Roads are the most important component of infrastructure development of any society. Roads have vital importance in AJK as the area of AJK is generally hilly and the population is scattered, so one of the most important infrastructure requirement of population is road for easy and comfortable communication. So for better roads construction following right up is prepared for discussion and loud thinking towards quality roads infrastructure development. I shall be great full for healthy and positive critics and comments on my article to help me correct my concepts or it may be help full towards the beginning of quality construction of roads in AJK.

There are following two main types of metalled roads:

1)    Flexible Pavement Roads:-

Flexible pavement has further two major classifications

a)     Water Bound Macadam Roads:-

Roads having top surface of stone, size less than 3” inches (i.e. macadam) bounded by clay and silt under optimum moisture content due to force of cohesion of clay in moist environment.

b)    Bituminous Bound Macadam Roads:-

Roads having top surface of stone, size less than 3” inches (i.e. macadam) bounded by bitumen (Bitumen is a substance extracted as byproduct of petroleum i.e. ethane or methane).

 

2)    Rigid Pavement Roads:-

Roads having top riding surface of P.C.C. (Plain Cement Concrete) or R.C.C. (Reinforced Cement Concrete) i.e. Top riding surface of rigid concrete.

The Roads of AJK have mainly following types and specifications.

a. Earthen Roads:-

Roads extracted generally by earth cutting only having very little or nil retaining walls and constructed without addressing the issue of drainages (i.e. Longitudinal or Cross drainages), such roads generally have very less width and steep gradients i.e. lowest specifications.

Construction of such low cost roads is simply wastage of resources regarding communication sector of AJK, as it results in construction of roads having following serious flaws.

i) Less width.

ii) Steep grades.

iii) Sharp turns.

iv) Without Longitudinal Drain.

v) Without Cross Drainages.

vi) Without proper retaining and breast walls.

Such roads are generally unsafe and unsustainable. Construction of such poor quality roads are being directed because of lack of funds, non availability of land as per required design and specifications, also usually the project leaders nominated by the notables are inexperienced ones (i.e. such roads are the result of political, socioeconomic, geological and funding constraints). If these roads are properly maintained, then these can only be used by small sized powerful 4×4 vehicles also such roads are highly risky and dangerous to travel on, even life threatening. Only highly experienced and alert kind of drivers with very good condition of vehicle can drive on such roads, so such roads are simply threat to lives of its users.

Also such roads are major sources of silting to dams because of steep grades and almost nil drainage facility the rain water (surface runoff) flows through the formation of roads with very high velocity resulting in scouring of surface and damage to existing retaining walls.

b. Fair Weather Roads:-

Roads having better earth work of about 18 feet width, consisting of following specifications.

i) 14 feet carriage way.

ii) Low cost retaining structures i.e. generally R.R. dry walls.

iii) Longitudinal drains by only earth excavation generally having trapezoidal section.

iv) Cross drainages.

General flaws in fair weather roads constructed in AJK are as follows.

i) Such roads also have steep gradients in general.

ii) Less widths on U-turns.

iii) Almost nil overtaking points.

iv) Side earth cuttings in vertical profile.

v) Some where the retaining walls do not justify the site requirement.

vi) Nil breast walls even in sliding areas are observed.

vii) Almost nil parapet walls.

These roads are generally use able in only fair weather conditions and needing regular maintenance by the beneficiary community or by the Department. In hilly areas such roads are generally being used by 4×4 vehicles and some where by powerful 2×4 vehicles too.

As these roads are not all weather roads so such roads can not be comfortably used in rainy days. These kinds of roads, may also be dangerous for travelers, so only experienced drivers along with reliable vehicles can travel through these roads. Such roads are also lives threatening.

c. Stone Soled Fair Weather Roads (All Weather Rough Roads):-

Any well constructed Fair Weather Road having stone soling of 6 inches thickness over its formation sub grade turns into all weather road, also by placing stone soling an impermeable layer is provided which reduces scouring and erosion because of water surface runoff during rainy season. Stone soling reduces water infiltration into formation soil of road causing reduction in fluid pressure and soil pressure behind the retaining walls (As soil itself behaves like fluid by water infiltration into the soil during rainy season) and results in failure of retaining structures.

Stone soling also provides a metal surface over the formation to reduce wheel load pressure to formation (sub grade) and results in reduction of excessive sub grade settlement by spreading wheel load over wider area, also stone soling never gets wasted for more than 1% (on the average) in years to serve and for any further construction towards metalling by either Flexible Pavement or Rigid Pavement and for further pavement it does not need to lay another sub base course but the laid stone soling performs best for sub base course, so it only needs grabbing of the overlying mud and dust before further metalling and surfacing.

Stone soled fair weather road makes travel a little cumbersome due to its hard, uneven and rough surface. So these kinds of roads are good for tough vehicles like jeeps, tractors and trucks to travel on. It may cause a little damage to vehicles caused by vibration and hammering effect of traveling through such rough riding surfaces which are not mend for delicate vehicles, but the road in result becomes safe to travel, less scouring, all weather, durable and requiring less maintenance. Also such roads are good for Bituminous Bound Macadam Road or for Rigid Pavement in future, preferably after possibly best compaction and consolidation of sub grade and such stone soling as sub base, also it does not need any repeated laying of sub base course as the previously laid stone soling performs best for sub base course.

Causes of road failure / damages:-

General causes of failure of roads are as follows:

1- Absence of quality consultancy in designing of projects prior to construction:-

Generally the schemes of projects proposed for construction are not very well worked and designed according to site and requirement prior to its sanctions, so for every project proper consultancies must be engaged.

Similarly for all important projects of roads, there should be a compulsion of consultancy for qualitative preparation of schemes; hence to every constructional project the cost of consultancy must be incorporated to have better quality projects resulting in a lot saving by reducing the wastages because of poor quality proposals. This will result in long term economy by the construction of well and properly designed projects.

2- Poor construction due to lack of quality supervision:-

The departments responsible for execution of projects should be fixed to deliver quality projects as per well worked and planned quality prepared by the consultants.

So to improve the quality of construction the capacity building of concerned departments is the prime issue to be addressed thoroughly and for the capacity building, also time to time seen and unseen factors effecting the efficiency and quality should be addressed on very rational and logical grounds but after detailed consultation with every tear and level of such concerned departments.

Also a rational and logical system of incentives and accountability right according to justice is required to be introduced, so by increased quality of planning and monitoring on rational and logical grounds the quality of projects can be improved.

3- Quality Operation and Maintenance:-

The constructed projects must be operated as per system and ethics and for this the beneficiaries and inhabitants need to be educated. Similarly permanent mechanism of quality maintenance of projects to keep the projects serving best for longer period is important to be focused on.

General observations about the flaws in construction of road projects.

A) – Too Steep Gradients in roads:-

Steep gradients in roads cause difficulty to climb vehicles, resulting damages due to wheels slipping and scratching of road surface, also steep gradients cause high velocity surface run off during rainy season and results in scouring and erosion of roads. Scouring of roads during rainy season promotes silting in dams too.

Steep gradients usually causes accidents of vehicles too which results in life losses as for many vehicles some times it becomes difficult to climb such high gradients which causes serious accidents and loss of precious lives  occur and it generally happens on steep and defective turns, which can easily be judged by traveling through AJK that usually road turns and bends are marked by the names of people who lost their precious lives on those turns.

B) – Vertical or Near To Vertical, Side Earth Cuttings:-

Generally the earth cutting on sides of roads are steeper than the soil friction angle or angle of repose of soil which causes frequent land sliding during rainy as well as in dry season, hence it results in frequent blockage of roads due to slides, so it is important to take good care about the soil cutting angle according to friction angle of soil (i.e. angle of repose of soil) or it will be further better that the side earths be cut in steps/slices, which can be more helpful for plantation to grow on and will keep the roads safe from sliding as well as it will help to produce wood for future and will also beautify the traveling and area too.

C) – Absence of Longitudinal Drains:-

Generally either the longitudinal drains are non existent or not being constructed properly or because of non maintenance of the section of longitudinal drains, the water during rainy season crosses over the formation of roads resulting in scouring and erosion of soil and surface of roads along with failure of retaining walls. Hence very serious focus over longitudinal drains is required and its right designing according to its technical need of the site.

D) – Absence or Improper Design of Cross Drainages:-

Cross drainages are either nonexistent or not designed according to the requirements of sites i.e. without under standing the fluid mechanics according to site geography. Hence proves to be nonfunctional or nonperforming. Hence qualitative and well designed cross drainages are compulsory for quality projects of roads.

E) – Poor Quality Retaining Structures:-

The classes of retaining walls being constructed in AJK are as follows:

i) – R.R. Dry Walls:-

R.R. Dry walls means Random Rubble Walls laid Dry i.e. without the use of mortar, meaning the use of stone rubble in the shape it is extracted without being dressed, constructed without any cementing material. R.R. dry walls are good if laid properly and it economizes the cost of projects too. The Phenomenon of such walls is based on following fundamentals.

Ø    All retaining walls must have sufficient excavated foundation depth to achieve well consolidated soil providing sufficient soil bearing to uphold the above coming load of wall without any excessive homogeneous or differential settlement, along with to provide sufficient passive earth pressure to retaining and breast walls.

As the soil retained behind the retaining walls causes pressure on retaining structure to push or move away outwards, this earth pressure is known as active earth pressure and it has affectivity of 30%.

Where as the soil which resists and does not let the retaining wall to move or slide in the direction the fill is forcing to move is called passive earth pressure which we achieve by sufficient deeper foundations in consolidated soil. This passive earth pressure has effectiveness of about 70% so a foundation depth of just few feet can hold a wall from sliding which is having high raised retained material on other side of wall towards the retained material.

Hence sufficient deep foundations are compulsory, to provide stability against sliding of retaining walls in outwards direction. But as per experience of field generally the walls laid on sites are not having sufficient depths.

Ø    For R.R. dry walls it is better to have width at base of wall as (0.4 to 0.5)h preferably 0.5h (to have better safety factor) and should not be less than 2.5 feet for low heights of wall having value of 0.5h less than 2.5 feet, where as “h” is the height of wall by keeping this formula we achieve sufficient breadth of foundation as well as it provides sufficient slope on outer surface of retaining walls to keep the net weight (Center of Gravity) on the side of retained material and provides more length of moment arm to the mass of retaining wall against the toe of wall, which makes the wall to provide sufficient counter moment to retaining wall against the moment caused by the retained soil with reference to toe. The formula of 0.5h is valid for walls having height more than 5 feet, where as for walls having height less than 5 feet may be fixed to 2.5 feet width of its foundation. The top of wall is generally fixed to a width of 2 feet. These kinds of walls are good for maximum heights of about 16 feet (5metters), and not for very high raised retaining wall. R.R. dry stone masonry walls should be constructed vertical from inner side of wall towards the retained material and must have slope on outer exposed side i.e. from outer side to keep the net weight away from the over turning point of toe and to keep the net weight (Center of gravity of wall) near to the retained material resulting in counter moment against the toe of wall, which will protect wall from over turning around the toe.

As per field experience the breadth of walls are not being constructed according to any formula, which needs to be addressed with care by the supervisory staff of the executing departments.

Ø    In foundations of retaining walls lying of lean P.C.C. pad can improve purposeful ness and sustainability, as it will help to distribute the above coming load in uniform and homogeneous manner to the sub soil, also to improve and strengthen the behavior of retaining wall as homogeneous and well integrated structure. To lay P.C.C. on soil in excavated trenches, the use of Polythene Sheet of heavy gauge can further improve the quality of P.C.C. to avoid direct contact of concrete with soil, which will improve quality and strength of concrete. The use of polythene sheet will provide underneath curing by utilizing water of mix for curing from bottom of P.C.C. pad, it will also prevent concrete from intermixing with soil causing weakening of cement bond and it will be serving as sealed shuttering hence the concrete will prove to be strong and durable by not losing either water or cement. Also after placing of P.C.C. in foundation it must be properly cured for at least one week before further construction for its better strength. Where as since now there is no use of P.C.C. base under the walls is adopted in general as practice in AJK and that is why heterogeneous load is placed over soil causing differential settlement and results in failure of walls.

Ø    For R.R. dry stone masonry possibly bigger sized stones must be used as the only bond in R.R. dry masonry wall is the weight of stone which causes to have friction bond between the stones of consecutive horizontal surfaces where weight of stone matters, which results the walls into a strong homogeneously bonded structure to retain material if constructed properly. The stone masonry must be of pattern that it should prove to be possibly unimass, so the courses of stone masonry must be laid in proper manner. Also interim “through stones” must be provided to nail the R.R. Dry retaining walls structure and to cause it to have integration between consecutive vertical surfaces. A through stone is a stone having one dimension long enough to cover the whole or maximum breadth of wall.

But generally as per field observations usually the R.R. dry stone masonry walls which experiences failure have apparent good masonry on outer most visible course, where as inside the outer layer inferior quality stones are placed not in the form of courses but in the form of almost filling which instead of strengthening the retaining structures, causes load and hence results in failure of walls. Also it has been observed that the contractors cheat by making walls as stone pitching i.e. having same section width from top to bottom just the stones laid on sloping outer surface of earth to be retained, causing easy failure of retaining walls.

Ø    The top of retaining walls for R.R. dry stone masonry is generally kept 2 feet wide and for the top layer bigger sized stones having more mass and at least one dimension of 2 feet laid in a manner that the 2 feet dimension of stones should be in 2 feet width direction of wall, to have firm top of wall to be capable enough to resist spilling water flow over the retaining walls during rainfall.

But generally small sized stones are used in walls and at top of walls, which easily moves due to over flowing of water during rains causing complete failure of retaining walls.

Ø    It’s again good to have at least 3 inches thick (1:2:4) P.C.C. topping on top of all R.R. dry walls along with extra 33% to fill the gaps of R.R. dry masonry and smoothening of surface also for higher retaining walls it will be further good to have P.C.C. bands on different heights and levels of walls as per requirement of site, having thickness of 3 inches with 50% extra for filling the gaps between masonry and to level the surface of P.C.C. band.

Ø    In sliding areas the roads must be provided with breast walls according to the need of site to reduce sliding. As sliding cause’s big damages to road sections and retaining walls.

Ø    After rainy seasons timely repair of damaged walls can protect structures from major or total failures.

Summarized causes of failure of R.R. Dry Stone Masonry Retaining Walls

The summarized causes of failure of R.R. Dry stone masonry retaining walls are as follows.

a.      Shallow foundations of retaining walls.

b.     Less base width of retaining walls.

c.      Absence of sufficient outer slopes in construction of retaining walls.

d.     Absence or poor quality laying mechanism of P.C.C. in foundation of retaining walls.

e.      Use of small sized stones in masonry of R.R. Dry retaining walls.

f.      Wrong courses of laid stones. Especially from inner side of retaining walls.

g.     Absence of interim concrete bands in high elevated R.R. Dry retaining walls.

h.     Absence of P.C.C. toping on top of retaining walls.

i.       Absence or insufficient use of through stones in R.R. Dry stone masonry retaining walls.

j.       Roads without metalled surfaces.

k.     Improper or absence of drainage mechanisms of roads i.e. improper or absence of longitudinal and cross drainages.

l.       Absence or improper protection against land sliding.

m.   Absence of timely repair works.

ii) – C.R. Dry Walls:-

It means that course rubble stone laid dry (i.e. dressed rubble masonry without cement mortar). It also has the same phenomenon as R.R. Dry walls, but it has better appearance than R.R. Dry walls. The stones used are course rubble, having dressed surfaces. But as per experience the stones are dressed for only outer most surfaces where as inner surfaces have same rough and quality less stone fillings inside the wall, instead of course rubble proper and qualitative inside masonry courses. C.R. Dry walls are even worst than the R.R. Dry walls as to have appearance of dressed surfaces the stones are broken down to smaller sizes, resulting in lesser weight stones and that is why the friction bond weakens. So such walls proves to be expansive than R.R. dry walls but less stable and durable than the R.R. Dry walls. So C.R. Dry walls should be discouraged.

iii) – C.R. Wet Walls:-

These kinds of walls have course rubbles i.e. dressed stones bonded with cement mortar. But as per experience the outer surfaces are just pointed by the mortar but generally no mortar exist inside the walls, also only outer stones are found dressed where as inner stones are generally observed as random rubble having cavities and hollow spaces, eventually walls from inner side are constructed without mortar.

One of the major reason of construction of such poor quality structures is due to lack of monitoring staff available in departments and are insufficient according to the number of projects, so due to insufficient supervisory technical staff and many other reasons it results in poor quality constructions. Also absence of weep holes is another important reason of failure of C.R. Wet Masonry Walls.

iv) – Wire Crate or Gabion Walls:-

These are the best retaining structures having bond of wire crates rapped around the well arranged bulk of stones and it can afford deformity and even then remains stable, wire crates or gabion walls keep on performing before the ultimate failure so such retaining structures are more sustaining and performing as retaining walls. Preferably heavy gauge wires of not less than “18 gauge” (i.e. 1/18 inches thickness) should be used having net of  4 x 4 inches also preferably bigger sized stones should be used and placed in proper manner of courses. In case of wire crates generally failures are due to use of less gauged wires, bigger sized meshes (i.e. 6 x 6 inches or more), use of small stones and not placed properly inside the wire crate boxes.

v) – Plum Concrete Walls:-

These are the walls generally laid in (1:3:6) concrete with mass of concrete replaced by either 30% stone or 40% stone having different ratios as per suitability. These kind of retaining walls are good in general if laid properly can resist a lot and can provide more stable retaining structure but it proves to be expansive and it can not face deformity, as by having deformity it generally results in total failure as compare to wire crate walls. Causes of failure are improper concrete, excess usage of stone to theft concrete, less elimination of voids by not using any vibrator to achieve denser mass, absence of proper curing, less quality material usage i.e. usage of inferior quality sand or crush. Improper mixes and water cement ratios along with absence of proper curing. For plum concrete walls it is very necessary to provide weep holes at regular vertical and horizontal distances to let the water weep out and protect the retaining structure from hydraulic pressure.

F) – Absence of Arboriculture (Plantation)

Roads must have arboriculture (plantation) on both sides of roads to provide soil stabilization and compensation to unnatural activity of road construction work. So every road estimate must include the cost of arboriculture as well as the up brining and protection cost of plants, at least for the period of initial maturity growth. Arboriculture may help in reduction of site soil scouring, silting to rivers and dams, also will reduce soil erosion and sliding, will also help to improve environment as well as wood generation for future needs. So a proper mechanism needs to be evolved for plantation as well as after words protection and facilitation towards the growth of plants on both sides of roads, so it will stabilize the soil causing protection to roads, also will reduce maintenance and will protect against scouring of soil resulting lesser silting to dams. Along with, it will improve weather environment and will produce wood to boost economy as well. This will beautify the traveling through roads and environment too.

G) – Absence of Camber and super elevation

Camber and super elevation is compulsory for road quality as it helps in controlled driving of vehicle, rapid water drainage from the formation of roads, thus prevents the road formation from being damaged. As per general experience camber and super elevation are not observed during construction. So to ensure camber and super elevation in roads the contractors should be given additional incentive for its construction according to design, the incentive must be devised after consultation with senior field engineers to ensure camber and supper elevation.

H) – Absence of required breast walls

Road sections passing through sliding areas must be provided with breast walls to cater or at least reduce sliding, but the breast walls must be designed according to the site requirements, best judged by professional engineers. For the terrain of AJK good quality gabion wire crates are better for breast walls but as per need good quality plum concrete walls and C.R. wet walls can also be used.

I) – Providing of Impermeable stone metal layer (Stone soling / sub base     course) on the surface of properly constructed Fair Weather Roads

The top surface of all fair weather roads must be provided with a layer of stone metal as sub base course (6” inch thick stone soling). So after at least one year of proper construction of fair weather road, as in duration of about one year at least the formation and sub grade almost gets sufficiently consolidated then stone soling (sub base course) preferably be laid over it. As the stone soling provides an impermeable metalled surface layer to the top surface of road which will not only make the roads all weather but it will provide protection against erosion and scouring. It will support the wheel load by reduction of pressure to sub grade and resulting in less settlement of sub grade. Also by having such impermeable layer the water infiltration inside roads formation during rainy season will also be reduced, causing reduction in fluidity of soil which is retained behind retaining walls, which results in less failure of retaining walls. So absence of stone soling over the surface of road formation (sub grade) generally causes failure to roads. Any further metalling over the stone soling should be delayed for at least further one year to let it be settled and consolidated to its maximum, which may result in durable road after words. Also after sufficient period the stone soling sub base gets settled to its limit and then after maximum consolidation of road surface if metalled by base course and bituminous wearing surface or as rigid pavement proves to be more durable than the roads which have all fresh metalled surfaces. Only a few more percentage of base course be given to cover the ditches, corrugation and ruts appeared on sub base course (stone soled surface) also extra percentage of base course against camber and super elevations may also be given to contractor to ensure the construction of camber and super elevation.

J) – Never to Use filler material in base and sub base courses for Bituminous Bounded Macadam Roads

For metalling of roads, as flexible pavement (Bituminous Bound Macadam Road) or rigid paved roads the use of filler material in sub base course and base course should be avoided as it is the basic cause of failure of any metalled road there is no concept of any water bound macadam course in bituminous bond macadam roads, both of these are entirely different classes and should never be mixed up because of poor concepts. Presence of filler material causes capillary action due to reduction in void sizes and makes water surface tension effective for capillary action from sub grade. Moisture and water gets trapped in filler material for longer durations after rainfall and does not let it to be drained down after rain, causing failure of bituminous surface, as bitumen looses its bond with stone in continuous presence of moisture for longer durations.

In almost every kind of filler materials especially in soil passing through sieve # 200 a substance named “Mont Morilonite /Bentonite” is use to be present which absorbs water and swells causing heave formation and again failure to the bituminous surfaces. Also by having filler material it does not let bitumen to have better bond with underlying base course, even after possible cleaning of base course compacted with filler material, only for about 10% to 15% stone of base course can hardly be naked to make just adhesive bond to some extent, which remains insufficient to have proper mechanical bond between base course and black topping, so the bitumen rests over surface just by its own weight without any logical bond which results in appearance of patches in very short period of service. So for sub base course the stone of size 3 to 7 inches and for base course stones of size less than 3” inch i.e. 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches should only be used, and no filler material be used at all, especially material passing sieve # 200 as it is clay and silt which has plastic and liquid behavior along with may posses Montmorilonite/Bentonite, also it facilitates to grow weeds and plants. Hence the items of filler material for sub base and base courses from S.C.R. item No. (21-13) & (21-14) should be eliminated as this item is authenticating filling in Sub base & Base course which is highly non technical item. The schedule of rates of 1979 and 1998 were according to AASHTO that’s why in both of these schedules against base course only 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches stone laying was mentioned and there was no any kind of filler material mentioned, as if filler material is to be used according to AASHTO specifications then its sieves no. passing and retaining along with percentages must have been mentioned to under stand its grading and proportion accordingly, which was never mentioned there. Also for sub base and base course the compaction in form of relative dry density according to AASHTO is 100% in field, which is possible if there is no use of filler material, but if the soil is well graded then it is merely impossible to achieve 100% AASHTO compaction, as it is relative dry density. For compaction of sub base course and base course the terminology of mechanical compaction is used which is achieved by mechanical inter locking of stones and not by compaction of voids with the help of filler material in it, as that is not termed as mechanically inter locked compaction, presence of voids in well compacted base course and sub base course is good for its durability and purposefulness. Just because of the use of filler material there is always saving of Bitumen and crush stone for any thickness as compared to the standard consumption mentioned in books for any thickness per 100 sft.. If no filler material is used, the over all cost of construction reduces although more bitumen and crushed aggregate is used just because of cost of filler material its laying, watering, then cleaning and for the whole process and duration costing rent of machinery and cost of labor. The use of filler material is not logically convinced but is adopted in sub continent just by thoughtless practice or blind following. Sciences believe in logic and Engineering is purely based on logic.

K) –  Use of items named as bed run and pit run in place of sub base course and base course should be avoided in Southern Region of AJK.

In last few years items of bed run and pit run are introduced in southern region of AJK in place of sub base course and may be even for base course too. Where as the material used as bed run and pit run is good for embankment raising and should only be used as better material of sub grade embankment and filling in floors of civil structures but in no case it is a better replacement of sub base course or base course.

Instead of bed run and pit run the bigger pebbles/rounded stones available in river beds and deltas of Mirpur and Bhimber are good igneous stones which became sedimentary by the transportation of water and have been grounded from its outer surface all around by the flowing water of rivers in millions of years resulting almost rounded shaped stones available in large quantity. So the stones having at least one dimension of 7 inches is good for sub base course if laid properly and its crushed stuff of size 1½ to 2½ inches is good enough for base course. Hence this locally available stone should be used for metalling, instead of bed run and pit run. The only reservation about these stones is for its outer smooth surface that it may not provide good bond but it dose not matter at all, and this stone can confidently be used as sub base course, base course and for crush to be used in bituminous wearing surface or crushed to size can also be used in cement concrete. As the stone will hopefully fulfill all the specifications, of AASHTO standards for the stones required in sub base course, base course and for bituminous wearing surface along with for concrete too. So it is requested to eliminate item No. 21-15(b) from C.S.R.

L) –  Laying of bitumen in hot and dry weather in hot form for its all layers of premix or T.S.T. and its compaction procedure to be improved.

Bituminous wearing surfaces must always be laid in hot and dry seasons, so for this the annual periods must be defined with conditions and should be followed strictly by the departments. Also all the layers from tack coat to finished surface of bitumen courses must be laid hot and dry in consecutive courses.

For compaction of bituminous surface pneumatic tires rollers having three consecutive axes should be introduced to avoid linear corrugations and to produce smooth riding surfaces. As in AJK generally steel tire rollers are used to compact sub grade, sub base, base and wearing bitumen surfaces. Also during compaction of bituminous wearing surface the steel tires are kept wet by water to keep bitumen from sticking to steel wheels of rollers. Where as by watering over bituminous surface and to steel wheels the temperature of bitumen is immediately dropped down, resulting the bitumen to resist compaction and hence bitumen remains un compacted and porous, also the bond between different layers of bitumen weakens. The best laying of wearing surface is to lay hot bitumen by the use of premix pavers and then compaction by pneumatic tired rollers without the use of water for better quality compacted premix.

M) – For resurfacing the previous surfaces should never be demolished

If there be no problem with the raising of road surface then it is preferred to never demolish the previously existing surfaces of existing metalled roads. And if only bituminous surface is to be placed then the previous bituminous surface should only be cleaned and dried and thus over it hot tack coat be laid before the new bituminous surface, as the previously existing surface will make the new surface more safe and durable.

Similarly if further base course is required than over the previous surface simply lay the base course of required thickness directly without scratching or dismantling the previous structure, just compact the additional base course and lay a new surface of bituminous wearing surface over it. As the previously existing road is best to prove under load because of its possible best consolidation over span of time also by being firm and having previous bituminous surface it helps to stop capillary action of water from sub grade to road top layer of wearing surface.

N) – Providing of stone curbs on either sides i.e. on edges of roads around sub base and base course inside the shoulder / berms:-

To keep the sub base and base course confine during compaction and to restrain the stone of sub base course and base course from lateral movement during compaction and under repeated loads of traffic, side stone curbs should be introduced between the stone metal and berms. Hence an item of curb on edge of metal should be introduced in roads construction. Providing of stone curb may also be helpful to protect road formation after the shoulder/berms gets eroded during rainy seasons.

O) – Good quality construction material available in AJK:-

AJK is enriched with almost every kind of construction materials. There are three major classes of rocks:

1-                                             Igneous Rocks

2-     Metamorphic Rocks

3-     Sedimentary Rocks

1- Igneous Rocks

AJK has plenty of best quality igneous rocks which have following properties:.

a)          High crushing strength

b)          Very low porosity i.e. very less water absorbent.

c)          Very good to resist weather effects.

d)          Very good texture to provide good bond.

So such stones are very good for load bearing civil structures.

General properties of such stones are as follows.

·            Good quality igneous rocks present in AJK provides stone having C.B.R. value of more than 80%.

·            L.A.A. (Loss Angels Abrasion test) value < 20% after 500 revolutions, which is good for bituminous surfaces and stones with L.A.A. < 40% are good for base course.

·            F.I. (Flakiness Index) < 25%

·            Water absorption <1% → 2%.

·            % loss in soundness test <12%

So the stones which qualify the above properties should be adopted for road construction as per specifications.

2- Metamorphic Rocks

AJK has sufficient metamorphic material from where sand and good quality stones for road construction can be achieved.

3- Sedimentary Rocks

AJK has very good sedimentary rocks which can be help full to produce very good quality construction materials as at many places of AJK lime stone, clay and shale are available which are sufficient to have cement factories in AJK. So a lot of cement industry can be established at many sites of AJK to produce cement. Hence the rocks of AJK are full of useful substances and minerals which can be helpful for construction and other industries.

But for easy and immediate extraction and use of all good quality construction materials which are available in AJK, proper legislations are required for its easy, unhurdled extraction. So where ever the good quality material is available should be taken up as asset and property of AJK, so it should be available to all who need it un hurdled and without any litigation.

Thus by having local materials of construction it will save a lot of cost of construction and will help to generate local employment and enterprises. Hence after detailed analysis the quarries are needed to be marked and the Government of AJK has to legislate to make it possible for easy and speedy extraction. A lot work is required to explore such valuable available construction material to be adopted and used.

Summarized Suggestions for good and sustainable roads in AJK

a)     Every project, especially road must first be designed by concerned professional consultant engineers according to site requirements prior to execution. Hence consultancy charges must become compulsory part of every project’s initial cost for qualitative planning of projects.

b)     Roads must be designed to have standard grade and for this matter Long Section must be prepared and finalized according to standard norms and then on the basis of designed L-Section, cross sections be prepared, so in every development department there must be posts of surveyors with every Assistant Engineer/Sub Divisional Officer.

c)     The linear grade in straight part of road must not exceed from 5% to 7% and for unavoidable circumstances the limiting gradient for a length not more than 100 feet should not exceed by 10%. Similarly the gradient on U-turns should not exceed from 3% but in unavoidable circumstances it should not exceed by 5% (limiting gradient for U-turns).

d)     Roads for Rural sector should not be of gross formation width less than 26 feet having carriage way of 22 feet to facilitate two way traffic on all the length of roads and having 2 feet wide shoulders on both sides of the carriage way, with 2 feet wide top of retaining wall on one side and 2 feet wide longitudinal drain on other side, so the total width should not be less than 30 feet. Similarly urban roads must not be less than 43 feet i.e. having 33 feet carriage way to facilitate two way traffic with comfortable and safe over taking margin with 3 feet wide shoulders on both sides of the roads (i.e. gross carriage way of 39 feet) and than having 2 feet wide top width of retaining walls on one side and 2 feet longitudinal drain on other side. As AJK is almost hilly area and road width should be sufficient enough to have safe traveling as in this hilly area at many places there is no margin of crossing of vehicles traveling in opposite directions hence it results in accidents causing damage and loss of precious lives. Safety of the travelers should be the top priority.

Instead of dealing with greater lengths of roads the priority should be given to quality of the roads. Quality communication is one important component which will give boost to tourism in AJK resulting in socio-economic change of the area. Good quality communication will result in boost to numerous kinds of local enterprises as it is one of the fundamental facilities for local enterprises to nourish.

e)     The entire earth work cutting should be according to the friction angle or angle of repose of soil i.e. less than 70 degree especially in non rocky soils or cut into slices or steps in a way to provide places for arboriculture having gross tangential profile of less than 70 degree.

f)      The longitudinal side drains may have “V” shape, instead of trapezoidal to facilitate self cleaning during rain fall, as well as to easy hosting of the wheel of vehicle thus providing extra margin of travel in case of no option. Also the wheel of vehicle will be able to easily go in and come out of the trench of longitudinal drain without harming vehicle or to travelers, so it can provide extra passage margin in case of emergency.

g)     Where ever there is threat of sliding, it must be provided with breast walls, which should be properly designed and best constructed by gabion wire crates to be able to afford deformity due to being malleable (flexible).

h)     Every road which is by compulsion to be constructed with minimum gross width of 18 feet, must have at least six over taking points per kilometer of gross width not less than 30 feet wide, having carriage way of 22 feet along with 2 feet wide shoulder/berms on each side and the length of crossing point not less than 50 feet. All U-turns must be treated as over taking points and than the remaining numbers of over taking points per kilometer be placed at regular distances in the remaining parts of narrow road lengths to facilitate over taking, parking or easy return of vehicles.

i)      All the U-turns must have outer radius of not less than 45 feet for rural roads and minimum 60 feet for all the urban hilly terrain roads.

j)      Roads must be provided with camber and super elevation as per design and standards.

k)     All the retaining walls must be of good quality and the methods to be adopted may preferably be gabion wire crates, plum concrete, R.R. Dry stone masonry or C.R. Wet walls as per requirement of site. But closely monitored during construction to ensure quality, so a lot of supervisory staff will be required to ensure better monitoring and better quality of projects.

l)      Roads must have arboriculture on both sides of roads to stabilize the soil and for many other benefits mentioned earlier.

m)   All the rural roads must at least be provided by a layer of 6 inch thick stone soling to make it all weather, minimum after one year of construction of fair weather road to let the fair weather road surface consolidated to its maximum. Also by providing layer of 6 inch thick stone soling the surface of the road becomes impermeable, non-scouring and will be able to resist excessive settlement of sub grade, as well as the failure of retaining walls will also be reduced.

n)     Parapets at regular distance of about 50ft must be provided on top of all retaining walls in hilly areas to increase traffic safety and at closer distance of about 25ft (maximum) on turns to protect the driver from being misguided.

o)     The humps and jumps in longitudinal directions of roads must be reduced to make the trafficking comfortable as well as to improve the safety for travelers by keeping the view clear to drivers instead of blind moves due to big humps jumps, corrugation and ditches. So additional cost to reduce humps and jumps be given to projects of roads but the quality must not be compromised in any case.

p)     Undue bends must be avoided and the roads alignment must be designed to keep it straight to possible limit. To make traveling more comfortable in all respect.

q)  For metalling of roads, as flexible pavement (Bituminous Bound Macadam Road) or rigid paved road the use of filler material in sub base course and base course should be avoided as it is the basic cause of failure of any metalled road there is no concept of any water bound macadam course in bituminous bond macadam roads, both of these are entirely different classes and should never be mixed up because of poor concepts. Presence of filler material causes capillary action due to reduction in void sizes and makes water surface tension effective for capillary action from sub grade. Moisture and water gets trapped in filler material for longer durations after rainfall and does not let it to be drained down after rain, causing failure of bituminous surface, as bitumen looses its bond with stone in continuous presence of moisture for longer durations.

In almost every kind of filler materials especially in soil passing through sieve # 200 a substance named “Montmorilonite /Bentonite” is use to be present which absorbs water and swells causing heave formation and again failure to the bituminous surfaces. Also by having filler material it does not let bitumen to have better bond with underlying base course, even after possible cleaning of base course compacted with filler material, only for about 10% to 15% stone of base course can hardly be naked to make just adhesive bond to some extent, which remains insufficient to have proper mechanical bond between base course and black topping, so the bitumen rests over surface just by its own weight without any logical bond which results in appearance of patches in very short period of service. So for sub base course the stone of size 3 to 7 inches and for base course stones of size less than 3” inch i.e. 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches should only be used, and no filler material be used at all, especially material passing sieve # 200 as it is clay and silt which has plastic and liquid behavior along with may posses Montmorilonite/Bentonite, also it facilitates to grow weeds and plants. Hence the items of filler material for sub base and base courses from S.C.R. should be eliminated as this item is authenticating and highly non technical item. The schedule of rates of 1979 and 1998 were according to AASHTO that’s why in both of these schedules against base course only 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches stone laying was mentioned and there was no any kind of filler material mentioned, as if filler material is to be used according to AASHTO specifications then its sieves no. passing and retaining along with percentages must have been mentioned to under stand its grading and proportion accordingly, which was never mentioned there. Also for sub base and base course the compaction in form of relative dry density according to AASHTO is 100% in field, which is possible if there is no use of filler material, but if the soil is well graded then it is merely impossible to achieve 100% AASHTO compaction, as it is relative dry density. For compaction of sub base course and base course the terminology of mechanical compaction is used which is achieved by mechanical inter locking of stones and not by compaction of voids with the help of filler material in it, as that is not termed as mechanically inter locked compaction, presence of voids in well compacted base course and sub base course is good for its durability and purposefulness, Just because of the use of filler material there is always saving of Bitumen and crush stone for any thickness as compared to the standard consumption mentioned in books for any thickness per 100 sft.. If no filler material is used, the over all cost of construction reduces although more bitumen and crushed aggregate is used just because of cost of filler material its laying, watering, then cleaning and for the whole process and duration costing rent of machinery and cost of labor. The use of filler material is not logically convinced but is adopted in sub continent just by thoughtless practice or blind following. Sciences believe in logic and Engineering is purely based on logic.

r)  Regular maintenance must be maintained to keep the structures to serve best and for timely proper maintenance sufficient allocations of funds should always be available with the concerned departments.

s)  Toll system may be introduced in AJK to generate funds for O&M of roads along with generation of funds to deal with communication sector of AJK for improvement, up gradation and construction of new projects according to need and requirement.

t)  Projects must never be compromised to reduce initial cost of projects on the cost of poor specifications and quality.

u)  Instead of construction and up gradation of more lengths of roads every year, it is much more important to have quality projects against the available resources to have sustainable development, which may result in lesser length of roads dealt every year. Quality is more important than to have quantity

v)     For all high altitude areas which are in snow zones, mild longitudinal grades but broader rigid pavements should be preferred having 6 inches thick stone soling laid over well cambered and super elevated compacted sub grade, than laying of lean concrete of minimum 3” inches thickness with 50% to 100% extra lean concrete quantity to fill the voids of stone soling depending the nature and quality of lade stone soling, and after lean concrete a minimum layer of 4 inches thick (1:2:4) concrete divided in panels should be preferred, instead of having bituminous roads. As bitumen gets spoiled in presence of long term moisture causing damage to roads but for rigid pavement very controlled grade of road is compulsory to keep the traffic travel in all seasons of year.

w)   Drainages of required design and quality must be provided in roads.

x)     For quality roads according to proper design the required land must be provided by the beneficiary community according to the design without any litigation or hurdle to ensure quality of road. Hence legislation for acquiring of land according to design of professional engineer is compulsory, to avoid wastage of resources and to achieve sustainable and qualitative development. Hence the projects should only be initiated if the beneficiary community is completely supportive to quality project construction. For the availability of land as per design, the revenue department of AJK should also perform responsibility.

y)     Good quality local materials which prove the standards required by specifications should be utilized to reduce the cost of constructions. But to mark the quarries and easy extraction of material legislation by the Government of AJK will be required. So that there should not be any litigation for its extraction.

 

F).           Institutional and Governance reforms.

The issue needs macro approach instead of to have micro approach as to have better command method which may produce better results as the reforms takes place from top and not from bottom to produce results. Hence in my opinion Pakistan may have elected Presidential form of Democracy as in America. As in initial Islamic Governments there were following important features of such Governments:

i) Rule by one man:-
  There was rule by one man, who was Chief Executive, head of legislation body and supreme commander of their forces as well.
ii) Legislative body (Shura) was separate from executive:-
  No any member of Shura was placed or deputed on any executive post/port folio to keep the legislation fair.
iii) Selection of rulers by Shura and not by common people:-
  The rulers of the time were not chosen by the common people but were chosen by the Shura having caliber more than common people. Hence at least the voters must posses some minimum qualification.
iv) Judiciary be superior and no body having exemption before the judiciary:-
  Judiciary must be superior to legislation to have check over the legislation under the umbrella of constitution and not a custodian kind of Judiciary. No any executive even the Chief Executive may have exemption before the law.
v) Executives to be placed by the recommendation of majority of Shura by the Chief Executive but not from the Legislative Body:-
  The Executives must be placed from out side of the Legislative Body mainly nominated by the Chief Executive with the majority consent of the Senate (i.e. the upper house of Legislative body)

Hence as per above mentioned norms the Austin an American Jurist might had idea and as per initial Islamic States kept all the following three piers of the Government separate from each other in their role, independent and had check of every two on the other third pier. Meaning there by following three piers:

(1).    Legislative body

(2).    Executive

(3).    Judiciary

Hence in America all the above five norms are observed by separation of all the three piers and checks of every two over the third.

American President is Chief Executive, head of legislative body and supreme head of American forces. No any member of legislative body including House of Representatives and Senate can have any other portfolio to keep the legislation neat and impartial. America has indirect mechanism of election of members of House of Representatives and Senate through electoral system, hence people having better awareness elect the legislative body and the Chief Executive of the country. Judiciary in America is superior to legislation and no body has exemption before it and not a custodian kind of judiciary as in UK and Pakistan. In America the Secretary of State i.e. the Ministers are placed by the Chief Executive who can not be from the legislative body and with the majority recommendations of Senate.

Pakistan adopted parliamentary form of democracy as in United Kingdom (U.K.) where as the parliamentary form of democracy as in United Kingdom (U.K.) has long history of heritage and that is based on traditions which are built in many hundreds of years. Also the nucleolus of parliamentary form of democracy in United Kingdom (U.K.) is the institution of Crown which is a sacred most institution of United Kingdom (U.K.), hence such parliamentary form of democracy is going on without any written constitution.

Hence for Pakistan Elected Presidential form of democracy in which all the three piers of state i.e. i) Legislative body, ii) Executive and iii) Judiciary must be separate and every two must have check over the third pier to keep a permanent mechanism of accountability along with the education level of voter may produce better results to perform as Shura.

Reduction and right sizing of Government machinery along with rationalization of remunerations, capacity building, value of competence, value of hard work, value of time, Truth, Vision, Justice are the keys to improve the performance of Government machinery. Also corruption needs to be properly defined as the corruption does not mean only financial illegal gratifications (As the window of computer when gets corrupt it does not start taking ill legal gratification but it becomes poor or defective to deliver as per requirement of its design), hence in my opinion corruption means failure or defect in the deliverance of any system which has following important forms:.

  1. Poor Governance.
  2. Injustice in totality in society.
  3. Holding of post or portfolio by any such person who does not deserve to be there.
  4. Wastage of time.
  5. Material illegal gratification against wrong doings.
  6. Material illegal gratification against right doings.

Hence indiscriminate justice in totality must be ensured. Accountability and rewards must be ensured. Also no body should ever be above law at all.

G).        Regional Initiatives.

All the regions must be explored for local initiatives. As for Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) following are the most important regional initiatives needing to be addressed.

i) Tourism:-
  For tourism to be promoted in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) following are the key aspects to be addressed.

1.           Infrastructure Development to be on international standards.

2.           Residential facilities for tourists to be improved at international standards.

3.           Public attitude and behavior towards tourists to be improved by the leadership

ii) Hydraulic Power Generation:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir is enriched in flowing water sources and can produce a lot of electrical energy due to its natural sources and terrain. So hydraulic electricity production can be one of the biggest industries for AJK.
iii) Finished Goods Wood Industry:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir has plenty of forests and further forestry can also be promoted, hence because of availability of good quality local wood rather precious kinds of wood are also available, hence finished goods production based on wood can also be a good regional initiative of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
iv) Wind Electricity Production:-
  In Azad Jammu and Kashmir on high hill tops high flow of air/wind is observed and thus there are many sites where wind mills can be successful installed.
v) Minerals Extraction:-
Azad Jammu and Kashmir is rich in mineral resources, hence extraction of precious minerals can be a good local enterprise and then its processing locally can further be a good regional initiative.
vi) Cement Industry:-
  Many areas of Azad Jammu And Kashmir may have the raw material of cement industry, so after detailed probing of minerals by the experts can produce proposals regarding such industries.
vii) Bee Farming:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir can be good for bee farming.
viii) Cattle and sheep farming:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir already has sheep keeping culture but still a lot margin of growth in this industry can be possible.
ix) Chicken Farming (Poultry):-
  Many of the areas in Azad Jammu and Kashmir can better be utilized for Chicken farming.
x) Fish Farming:-
  Rivers of Azad Jammu and Kashmir can be utilized to produce fishes of different kinds which may be suitable.
xi) Brick Industry Around the Periphery of Dam:-
  The silting in Mangla Dam can be addressed by having brick and other clay based industry around the Mangla Dam and incentives be introduced by the WAPDA to facilitate for extraction of silt from Dam and be used by the Brick and Clay Based Industry to utilize the silt, which must be extracted from Dam during the low level durations of Dam. This kind of extraction of silt may help to keep the increased capacity of Dam and hence better water storage and to enhance the useful life of Dam as well.
xii) Small and cottage industry:-
  The human resource of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is to be promoted to groom small cottage industry and to enhance self reliance.
xiii) Fruit and vegetable farming:-
  In AJK there is generally small land holdings, hence fruit and vegetable farming can be good.
xiv) Silk Production:-
  The weather of AJK is good in many regions to have mulberry plants and then to have silk producing kokoons (An insect which produces silk).
xv) Community bio gas plants:-
  By having more cattle and sheep forms bio gas plants can be helpful to produce fuel by acetylene gas to burn and may be helpful to run generators to produce electricity.
xvi) Garbage based energy generation:-
  Garbage is another good source to be decomposed to produce gas fuel.

Hence in all the regions of Pakistan regional industries are required to be promoted to utilize the Local human resource for individuals and national income generation.

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

A). Integrated Energy.

Pakistan is facing extreme energy crisis, hence for to produce energy to meet the requirements following are the most important sectors according to the priority.

i) Hydraulic Power Generation:-
  Pakistan is blessed in regard the natural sources of flowing water available in form of many rivers and water channels, which starts flowing from the ice melting high mountains to sea. Pakistan is also blessed by large catchments basins of precipitation either in the form of ice or rain.

Hence to meet the energy crisis the Hydraulic Power Energy Generation based which is definitely environment friendly along with such Hydraulic Power Generation will help to store water and to meet the requirements of irrigation for the crops even such Hydraulic Power Generation can also be helpful to raise the ground water table as well and will be helpful for plantation as well and to develop beautiful resorts regarding tourism too around such Dams.

Pakistan by the grace of nature has big capacity to produce Hydraulic Power Generation based on the heads available to produce drop fall of water having good quantum of Potential Energy along with quantum and that Potential Energy be further converted into mechanical and then to electrical energy. Hence available head and quantum along with sustainability and feasibility of the sites are important to be worked on as the yield is also very important to design any such projects.

ii) Coal Energy:-
  As per the information achieved by media, Pakistan has a lot reserves regarding coal which can be utilized as fuel to produce other forms of fuel like diesel and to burn the coal directly itself to produce electrical energy. Also such big reserve clearly indicates that there must be sufficient reserve of other kinds of fuel as well.
iii) Solar Energy:-
  Pakistan is enriched with solar source and hence Solar Energy can also be produced but its feasibility in totality regarding its original investment and then the cost of operation and maintenance and its sustainable life are important to be taken under consideration in detail.
iv) Atomic Energy:-
  Pakistan has the technology of Atomic Energy hence the Atomic Energy should be utilized for the generation of electricity which is one of the best sources.
v) Wind Energy:-
  Pakistan has a lot potential in the costal areas along with Karachi up to Makran and Gawadar where sufficient high velocity wind is available also there are many other areas where due to weather environment and temperature differences in the neighboring areas sufficient wind blow is available by the grace of nature hence all such areas including high hill tops, which can be helpful in production of electricity through wind and the Kinetic Energy of wind can be converted into mechanical form and then to produce electricity hence it is another environment friendly source which does not disturb or to burn other valuable sources. Hence is also one of the good sources of energy which can be availed.
vi) Burning of Fuel:-
  All such sources in which fuels other than coal are burned to produce electricity must be discouraged as on one hand it is burning the fuel source of world which may be required for coming generations also to import fuel costs a lot to Pakistan and drains its economic reserves as well, also cause pollution.
vii) Community bio gas plants:-
  By having more cattle and sheep forms bio gas plants can be helpful to produce fuel by acetylene gas to burn and may be helpful to run generators to produce electricity.
viii) Garbage based energy generation:-
  Garbage is another good source to be decomposed to produce gas fuel.

    Conclusion:-

All such sources which are environment friendly and does not waste other sources of energy must be preferred and focused on in which Hydraulic Power Generation, Wind mills, Solar Energy, Atomic Energy and coal based electricity production must be preferred relying over the sources present in Pakistan.

C). Private Sector Led Growth.

Pakistan needs serious changes in its system which are not proper to be discussed here but the most important is that the Government Hierarchy of Pakistan needs to be rationalized and the unnecessary growth of Government machinery is needing to be curtailed along with the remuneration of Government machinery needs to be rationalized along with proper screening and competence with intention to be observed at every level.

“Right person to be placed on right job.”

The politicization and favoritism in Government Hierarchy must be extinguished. As only a healthy, free of corruption and Just Government machinery can be helpful in Private Sector Led Growth.

As over expanded, politicized, incompetent, under paid, sick, inhuman, unjust and by compulsion corrupt Government machinery is the basic obstacle for the private enterprises and economic growth of Pakistan.

There must be soft loaning available for properly qualified people to be provided against their academic records to let them place their ideas in form of feasibility or proposals and such proposals must be scrutinized  by some appropriate official forum but first must have recommendation of board of Commerce in Private Sector to accomplish any such proposal to be placed before the forum and then against valuable proposals soft loans be available with such legislations that such loaning must not be wasted. All the private sector representative forums must place their proposals regarding all the issues they are facing as obstacles and after sufficient loud thinking and after well working in detail on their issues the obstacles and solutions be addressed and where required all the defective laws be abolished and better legislation with consent of competent and concerned people after well thought and well worked process be adopted.

The system of taxation is to be privatized as the tolls in Pakistan and only Taxation Courts are to be established on Division levels to settle the issues. Very simple and easy to under stand system of taxation is requiring to be introduced.

E).      Modernization of Existing Infrastructure.

Infrastructure development must be according to international standards. Hence right sizing and capacity building of infrastructure building departments is required. Also there must be only one department regarding infrastructure development having all the sectors under one Government Department and may have bifurcation of Urban and Rural. Such mechanism may help to avoid overlapping, fudge and unorganized development having grade (B-20) posts at district levels and then grade (B-21) posts at Division levels and grade (B-22) posts to head such Department at provincial and state levels. All international standards must strictly be observed in building sustainable infrastructure. Public participation can be a good tool to have sustainable projects and the beneficiary community must have a sense of ownership also the demand driven projects should be preferred. Right sizing of concerned Departments, Expert ism, Capacity Building of concerned Departments and Right person on right job can produce better results along with trust over right parsons placed on right jobs to be helpful to deliver. I am incorporating here my exclusive input regarding the construction of roads in AJK.

F).             Institutional and Governance reforms.

The issue needs macro approach instead of to have micro approach as to have better command method which may produce better results as the reforms takes place from top and not from bottom to produce results. Hence in my opinion Pakistan may have elected Presidential form of Democracy as in America. As in initial Islamic Governments there were following important features of such Governments:

i) Rule by one man:-
  There was rule by one man, who was Chief Executive, head of legislation body and supreme commander of their forces as well.
ii) Legislative body (Shura) was separate from executive:-
  No any member of Shura was placed or deputed on any executive post/port folio to keep the legislation fair.
iii) Selection of rulers by Shura and not by common people:-
  The rulers of the time were not chosen by the common people but were chosen by the Shura having caliber more than common people. Hence at least the voters must posses some minimum qualification.
iv) Judiciary be superior and no body having exemption before the judiciary:-
  Judiciary must be superior to legislation to have check over the legislation under the umbrella of constitution and not a custodian kind of Judiciary. No any executive even the Chief Executive may have exemption before the law.
v) Executives to be placed by the recommendation of majority of Shura by the Chief Executive but not from the Legislative Body:-
  The Executives must be placed from out side of the Legislative Body mainly nominated by the Chief Executive with the majority consent of the Senate (i.e. the upper house of Legislative body)

Hence as per above mentioned norms the Austin an American Jurist might had idea and as per initial Islamic States kept all the following three piers of the Government separate from each other in their role, independent and had check of every two on the other third pier. Meaning there by following three piers:

(1).     Legislative body

(2).     Executive

(3).     Judiciary

Hence in America all the above five norms are observed by separation of all the three piers and checks of every two over the third.

American President is Chief Executive, head of legislative body and supreme head of American forces. No any member of legislative body including House of Representatives and Senate can have any other portfolio to keep the legislation neat and impartial. America has indirect mechanism of election of members of House of Representatives and Senate through electoral system, hence people having better awareness elect the legislative body and the Chief Executive of the country. Judiciary in America is superior to legislation and no body has exemption before it and not a custodian kind of judiciary as in UK and Pakistan. In America the Secretary of State i.e. the Ministers are placed by the Chief Executive who can not be from the legislative body and with the majority recommendations of Senate.

Pakistan adopted parliamentary form of democracy as in United Kingdom (U.K.) where as the parliamentary form of democracy as in United Kingdom (U.K.) has long history of heritage and that is based on traditions which are built in many hundreds of years. Also the nucleolus of parliamentary form of democracy in United Kingdom (U.K.) is the institution of Crown which is a sacred most institution of United Kingdom (U.K.), hence such parliamentary form of democracy is going on without any written constitution.

Hence for Pakistan Elected Presidential form of democracy in which all the three piers of state i.e. i) Legislative body, ii) Executive and iii) Judiciary must be separate and every two must have check over the third pier to keep a permanent mechanism of accountability along with the education level of voter may produce better results to perform as Shura.

Reduction and right sizing of Government machinery along with rationalization of remunerations, capacity building, value of competence, value of hard work, value of time, Truth, Vision, Justice are the keys to improve the performance of Government machinery. Also corruption needs to be properly defined as the corruption does not mean only financial illegal gratifications (As the window of computer when gets corrupt it does not start taking ill legal gratification but it becomes poor or defective to deliver as per requirement of its design), hence in my opinion corruption means failure or defect in the deliverance of any system which has following important forms:.

  1. Poor Governance.
  2. Injustice in totality in society.
  3. Holding of post or portfolio by any such person who does not deserve to be there.
  4. Wastage of time.
  5. Material illegal gratification against wrong doings.
  6. Material illegal gratification against right doings.

Hence indiscriminate justice in totality must be ensured. Accountability and rewards must be ensured. Also no body should ever be above law at all.

G). Regional Initiatives for AJ&K.

All the regions must be explored for local initiatives. As for Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) following are the most important regional initiatives needing to be addressed.

i) Tourism:-
  For tourism to be promoted in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) following are the key aspects to be addressed.

1.           Infrastructure Development to be on international standards.

2.           Residential facilities for tourists to be improved at international standards.

3.           Public attitude and behavior towards tourists to be improved by the leadership

ii) Hydraulic Power Generation:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir is enriched in flowing water sources and can produce a lot of electrical energy due to its natural sources and terrain. So hydraulic electricity production can be one of the biggest industries for AJK.
iii) Finished Goods Wood Industry:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir has plenty of forests and further forestry can also be promoted, hence because of availability of good quality local wood rather precious kinds of wood are also available, hence finished goods production based on wood can also be a good regional initiative of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
iv) Wind Electricity Production:-
  In Azad Jammu and Kashmir on high hill tops high flow of air/wind is observed and thus there are many sites where wind mills can be successful installed.
v) Minerals Extraction:-
Azad Jammu and Kashmir is rich in mineral resources, hence extraction of precious minerals can be a good local enterprise and then its processing locally can further be a good regional initiative.
vi) Cement Industry:-
  Many areas of Azad Jammu And Kashmir may have the raw material of cement industry, so after detailed probing of minerals by the experts can produce proposals regarding such industries.
vii) Bee Farming:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir can be good for bee farming.
viii) Cattle and sheep farming:-
  Azad Jammu and Kashmir already has sheep keeping culture but still a lot margin of growth in this industry can be possible.
ix) Chicken Farming (Poultry):-
  Many of the areas in Azad Jammu and Kashmir can better be utilized for Chicken farming.
x) Fish Farming:-
  Rivers of Azad Jammu and Kashmir can be utilized to produce fishes of different kinds which may be suitable.
xi) Brick Industry Around the Periphery of Dam:-
  The silting in Mangla Dam can be addressed by having brick and other clay based industry around the Mangla Dam and incentives be introduced by the WAPDA to facilitate for extraction of silt from Dam and be used by the Brick and Clay Based Industry to utilize the silt, which must be extracted from Dam during the low level durations of Dam. This kind of extraction of silt may help to keep the increased capacity of Dam and hence better water storage and to enhance the useful life of Dam as well.
xii) Small and cottage industry:-
  The human resource of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is to be promoted to groom small cottage industry and to enhance self reliance.
xiii) Fruit and vegetable farming:-
  In AJK there is generally small land holdings, hence fruit and vegetable farming can be good.
xiv) Silk Production:-
  The weather of AJK is good in many regions to have mulberry plants and then to have silk producing kokoons (An insect which produces silk).
xv) Community bio gas plants:-
  By having more cattle and sheep forms bio gas plants can be helpful to produce fuel by acetylene gas to burn and may be helpful to run generators to produce electricity.
xvi) Garbage based energy generation:-
  Garbage is another good source to be decomposed to produce gas fuel.

Hence in all the regions of Pakistan regional industries are required to be promoted to utilize the Local human resource for individuals and national income generation.

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

THE IMMEDIATE SOLUTION AND PRIORITIES FOR PAKISTAN

The better solution we have right now is that all the corrupt and having other serious flaws Politicians must be removed from membership of Assemblies under Article 62 & 63 and then may provide representation to rest of all the credible members of Assemblies in proportion to their last vote mandate which they had in previous election.

The change of system from Parliamentary to Presidential form of democracy like in America, also the new Constitution must be Secular with a restriction that no any law against the directions of Islam could ever be made.

Then right sizing of government machinery, right person on right job through fair merits as per the procedure in JAC UK, remunerations to be logical in Public Sector, to bring the Government machinery out of corruption by compulsion.

Reforms in judiciary by removing / abolishing all the articles which permit an experienced lawyer to be placed as judge in superior judiciary, induction from initial level in judiciary as per the process of JAC UK, mechanism of jury in all the Courts of Law to apply check over the acts of the Judiciary, also for every appeal against any judgment of lower court the concerned judge or judges of lower judiciary who made the judgment in appeal must also be listed in respondents on top and if the judgment is found wrong by appellate court, the judge of lower judiciary must at least be conveyed displeasure over poor judgment or any other penalization may also be devised and such displeasure must be accounted for while promotions of any such judge take place also a mechanism of silent voting of all the concerned Bars to validate the credibility of any such Judge under promotion and in panel, but if any judge be found maneuvering lawyers of the Bar in his favor on cogent evidences be immediately and permanently rejected for any promotion ever, the role of judicial council be expedited and similarly the part of Bar Council Acts regarding proceedings upon the complaints against lawyers on their acts against the justice be expedited. Even the Bar Council Acts be framed by legislative assembly and not by Bar councils to convert it to a proper law. Also for every vexatious and frivolous stance taken by any lawyer the party and lawyer must be penalized under Section 35-A and 35 of CPC and similar kind of law may also be introduced in Cr.P.C. as well and heavy penalties be awarded also for some numbers of such penalties license of lawyer be suspended and further even it may be cancelled. Even the degrees of all the lawyers be verified and if found fudge or fake be discarded from profession and even be penalized under civil and criminal proceedings.

Then accountability across the board through out Pakistan and through free and fair open trial and the people found guilty be penalized also all the excess they posses to their justified owning inside Pakistan and even outside Pakistan be nationalized and the person be black listed for any business or role with the Public sector of Pakistan.

Writ of Law to be ensured at every level of society without any discrimination firstly by the Government, then by Judiciary and at end by Public at large.

Pakistan to be a welfare state.

Then prime focus to followings;

  • Justice which includes accountability as well.
  • All the system to be made logical.
  • Strengthening of Institutions.
  • Value of Time.
  • Value of competence.
  • Value of hard work.
  • Pay back of all loans.
  • Infrastructure development.
  • Improvement in social services.
  • Taxation to be reduced, simplified and ensured.
  • Capacity building.
  • Self reliance.

 

 

Sincere,
Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick,

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

System of Government may be required for Pakistan

Pakistan must have Presidential form of Democracy as in America and it is quite clear that this Parliamentary form of democracy is totally failure also the martial laws after the constitution of 1973 is C.T. test that this Parliamentary form of democracy is badly failure and even worst system of Government and simply dragging this country and nation to big ditch. This system of Government should not prolong any more as it is not only wasting precious time of nation but declining it to drastic situation even it is generating such approach of nation which is really horrible. We as a nation is almost losing all human values, ethics and quality, we are having every worst attitude for which many nations were abolished from the face of earth by nature. We do not have national approach but just self survival at any cost. All this is horrible for not even us but for our coming generations. The best system of Government is only democracy but true democracy not the dictatorship wearing skin of democracy. The best example of democratic system of Government having closest example to initial Islamic system of Government, and it can be said that may be the idea of American System of Government by a jurist Austin may have been taken from initial Islamic system of Government. There are many basics for better system of Government but I am incorporating here the only a few basics that all the three major piers of Government i.e. the Legislative body, Executive and Judiciary must be separate from each other and every two must have check over the third to keep proper accountability on each other and keep all the three piers within limits and not to misuse their role. Also every one should be accountable and no one should have exemption. Minimum Qualification of all the portfolio holders must be according to required competence for the forum and electoral system must be introduced by having one electoral per 25000 people who also must have some minimum qualification level and then for next members of lower house and upper house of legislation body must be elected by electoral as they be having better qualification hence may play role of Shura, as in initial Islamic states the rulers were selected by Shura and not by common people. The judiciary must be superior and not custodian. Then the Government machinery must be rationalized  to its right size and over growth must be curtailed but the remunerations of Civil Servants must be rationalized and then be equated to some commodities like value of Gold, Fuel, Mutton and wheat etc. to keep it rationalized for ever after to bring the Government Servant out of corruption by compulsion. All the laws, rules and even constitution is needing to be reviewed by best impartial and competent jurists and all the defective laws must either be corrected or abolished, as the basic obstacles in justice are poor laws and partial and incompetent machinery. Accountability, justice and writ of law must first be ensured by the executive and even in civil cases the crime doers must be punished in a way that they must observe laws while making their acts. We must not have adapted parliamentary form of democracy as we did not have institution of Crown. The basic idea is that this parliamentary form of democracy has many basic flaws and those are that the executive is from within the legislative body and the judiciary is custodian and there are exemptions to many portfolios, also the voter only has criteria of age but not any education, hence either the procedure of electoral as in America has to be devised or there must be some minimum education level for to vote and it may be matriculation/Secondary level of education.

Only indiscriminate justice ensured first by executive and then by judiciary and after all by all the citizens can ensure better society and this can only be achieved by qualitative leadership, justice and system. Where as we as a nation badly lack in all the three and it is a misery that from among all these three every two are pulling down the third to drag all to ditch thus resulting nation to go down in ditch. So to have better results we need
Good leadership which still could not appear.
Qualitative and objective justice, which does not exist in our society but the so called available justice, is of subjective nature which can only impart worst to society.
Poor system of government and all the rest as well, which definitely needs major reforms, like Right sizing of government establishment. Right person to be on right job, indiscriminate and qualitative justice at every level and by all for all and every injustice by any must be addressed and such person or forum must be held accountable without any exemption. Thus no one either an individual or any institution may ever be treated above law.
Remuneration of govt. machinery must be improved to be rational to bring govt. machinery out of corruption by compulsion and such remuneration must be equated to some commodities to seek proper value automatically in accordance with the market prices. Social security to all, to bring people out of the fear of survival along with assurance of all to the basic facilities with quality. The constitution, laws and all the rules need to be reviewed by competent people having command over the comprehensive law and having upright intention. Role of all the constitutional institutions and subordinate institutions is requiring to be reviewed. Accountability should start from top.
Only one good person who leads a country, an institution, an organization or his own house brings change and none other.
Also for any flaw in any institution, organization or establishment only the top most first be held responsible for.
etc. etc. etc.

The 1973 Constitution is also defective and it’s confirmatory test of failure is that. If it be perfect then after it there can never by any army quo. Actually 1973 constitution was made by all the politicians for their interest and for the interests of their generations.
Their is nothing better than democracy and for any state there are three major piers one is Legislative body second is Executive and the third is Judiciary and for any good democratic system all these three must be separate to each other must have full powers and role but among these three every two must have check over the other third to control and not to let misuse it’s role. The parliamentary form of democracy device in our Constitution of 1973 has basic flaws i. e. The Executive is from among the legislative body, so the executives influence legislature to protect their interests where as our judiciary is not superior to legislature but it has a role of custodian. So ultimately only the Executive rules without having any check over and thus ultimately misuses powers which in result brings the role of army where as army is not educated to rule. So our nation is in a state of curse and nothing is going right by having this system. In Islam i. e. Quran and Sunnah there is no any system of government device but only that Islam is the supreme law for any Islamic state but the model of state device by early Islamic states had four major features. 1. Rule of executive by one man on top but separate from legislature and judiciary 2. Shuraa the legislative body had no any role as executive thus no any member of Shuraa was placed as governor or ruler 3. The selection of ruler by Shuraa and not by common people 4. The judiciary was superior and no body had exemption before it hence the rulers had to appear as common person before the court. And for this the best form of democracy which has very close features to initial Islamic State systems is the American form of democracy, hence it is stated that the jurist Austin who gave the basic idea might had idea from initial Islamic State. Where as we took parliamentary form of democracy as per UK but it’s important that UK is performing because of strong heritage and their human values also that system is working because of the institute of Crown though it may be a symbolic institute but it provides nucleus and ultimate justice that is why that system is performing some how. Where as in our country only the executive rules as rest of all lies in pockets of executive it may be any one civil or army, thus every chief executive becomes that powerful and have no any check over which results in misuse of power. Accountability is a compulsion even over executive, legislature and judiciary other wise what ever we are experiencing will go on. Also our system, corruption and other flaws have reached to point that may it can not continue. Also may be the Quaid-e-Azam did not have the parliamentary form of democracy for Pakistan otherwise he must be the first prime minister of Pakistan instead of being Governor General. There are a lot flaws in judicial norms and laws, due to which justice is restrained and technicalities are playing, where as any matter which comes before any court, it is the liability of court to provide justice and it is the duty of judge to provide justice and the ability and competence of counsel must not matter and if any judge fails to deliver justice he must also be held accountable and no one should ever be above law. So nut she’ll it is felt need for change in system by changing or improving Constitution and constitutional roles and selection criteria in constitutional institutions, we need to address all the laws and review as per need, Reforms in judiciary and judicial system, right sizing of institutions and departments and firm process of placing of right persons on right job to ensure good leadership production, assurance of indiscriminate justice and formulation of better system. Also corruption means failure or decline of system to its designed deliverance. Also in qualitative norms of living observed in Europe there is a lot contribution of law of Tort and it’s qualitative implementation and practice.

  • There is no any democracy which does not have following
  • Basic human right indiscriminate and for all.
  • Indiscriminate justice.
  • Indiscriminate accountability.
  • No body with any exemption.
  • Right of excess for all they deserve.
  • Social security.
    And where ever these are not present there is no any democracy.
    Some times apparent democracy in fact is Kingdom but it needs to be understood.
    Any state without such democracy can never be a successful state.
    Also in kingdoms it does matter that who is ruling which we experience in Pakistan but in true democracy no body is ever above law and all have same rights which we do not have neither we have any rule of law. In weak system of governance the powerful beasts tear apart the net of law and the weak ones like insects gets caught in and in such states only mafia in Government, Executive and Judiciary. And such countries become haven for illiterates and criminals by not having qualitative leadership, poor justice and poor system. Also justice does not mean snatched justice but it means automated justice received by every one on door steps first by executive and then by judiciary. Also objective justice is required which imparts good to society and not the subjective justice which favors the influencing people only. The society which ensures the indiscriminate justice is heaven on earth and is true sense of all the religions as per directions of Allah Almighty.
    Our society got mentally and morally corrupt. So we have only two segments in our society, one is snatcher like vouchers and other are the ones who face looting like bate. And we all keep trying to become voucher one way or other to not to be bate just like the rule of jungle.

We the muslim countries of world are in majority leaving apart Turkey or such other countries which by Grace of Allah are blessed by better leadership are in worst curse of qualitative Leadership, humanity, indiscriminate justice, system and right persons on right jobs which have almost resulted in almost corrupt societies. As corruption is not all about money but it means weakening or even failure of society to deliver well being to its incumbents. May Allah help us to have qualitative leadership to formulate better system, ensure indiscriminate justice, merit and accountability at every level, society of welfare, peace and harmony and no any one should ever be above law. We need Jehad of production of Qualitative Leadership, indiscriminate Justice, better system etc to make Muslims of world to be in lead role and dignified in world. Even blessing for all the Muslims and non Muslims as well who are not enemies of mankind. Muslims of world should lead by their character, capacity, qualities and worth fullness.

Regarding the Civil Services of Pakistan “For peanut remunerations only the services of monkeys can be had but for competent people to serve the remunerations must be logical and more than market based along with segregation and filtration to take place and all the people who are incompetent and corrupt must be thrown out to improve the set up of Civil Services in the best interest of Nation and public at large”.

We wish and are praying for Pakistan to have Good and qualitative Leadership, Qualitative and indiscriminate justice at every level to be observed by people, then by executive and then by judiciary under the strong consent of Qualitative Leadership and Qualitative system to deliver are our prime need.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick (BBB),

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Roads are the most important component of infrastructure development of any society. Roads have vital importance in AJK as the area of AJK is generally hilly and the population is scattered, so one of the most important infrastructure requirements of population is road for easy and comfortable communication. So, for better roads construction following right up is prepared for discussion and loud thinking towards quality roads infrastructure development. I shall be great full for healthy and positive critics and comments on my article to help me correct my concepts or it may be help full towards the beginning of quality construction of roads in AJK.

There are following two main types of metalled roads:

  • Flexible Pavement Roads:-

Flexible pavement has further two major classifications

  1. Water Bound Macadam Roads:-

Roads having top surface of stone, size less than 3” inches (i.e. macadam) bounded by clay and silt under optimum moisture content due to force of cohesion of clay in moist environment.

  1. Bituminous Bound Macadam Roads:-

Roads having top surface of stone, size less than 3” inches (i.e. macadam) bounded by bitumen (Bitumen is a substance extracted as byproduct of petroleum i.e. ethane or methane).

  • Rigid Pavement Roads:-

Roads having top riding surface of P.C.C. (Plain Cement Concrete) or R.C.C. (Reinforced Cement Concrete) i.e. Top riding surface of rigid concrete.

The Roads of AJK have mainly following types and specifications.

  1. Earthen Roads:-

Roads extracted generally by earth cutting only having very little or nil retaining walls and constructed without addressing the issue of drainages (i.e. Longitudinal or Cross drainages), such roads generally have very less width and steep gradients i.e. lowest specifications.

Construction of such low cost roads is simply wastage of resources regarding communication sector of AJK, as it results in construction of roads having following serious flaws.

  1. i) Less width.
  2. ii) Steep grades.

iii) Sharp turns.

  1. iv) Without Longitudinal Drain.
  2. v) Without Cross Drainages.
  3. vi) Without proper retaining and breast walls.

Such roads are generally unsafe and unsustainable. Construction of such poor quality roads are being directed because of lack of funds, non availability of land as per required design and specifications, also usually the project leaders nominated by the notables are inexperienced ones (i.e. such roads are the result of political, socioeconomic, geological and funding constraints). If these roads are properly maintained, then these can only be used by small sized powerful 4×4 vehicles also such roads are highly risky and dangerous to travel on, even life threatening. Only highly experienced and alert kind of drivers with very good condition of vehicle can drive on such roads, so such roads are simply threat to lives of its users.

Also such roads are major sources of silting to dams because of steep grades and almost nil drainage facility the rain water (surface runoff) flows through the formation of roads with very high velocity resulting in scouring of surface and damage to existing retaining walls.

  1. Fair Weather Roads: –

Roads having better earth work of about 18 feet width, consisting of following specifications.

  1. i) 14 feet carriage way.
  2. ii) Low cost retaining structures i.e. generally R.R. dry walls.

iii) Longitudinal drains by only earth excavation generally having trapezoidal section.

  1. iv) Cross drainages.

General flaws in fair weather roads constructed in AJK are as follows.

  1. i) Such roads also have steep gradients in general.
  2. ii) Less widths on U-turns.

iii) Almost nil overtaking points.

  1. iv) Side earth cuttings in vertical profile.
  2. v) Some where the retaining walls do not justify the site requirement.
  3. vi) Nil breast walls even in sliding areas are observed.

vii) Almost nil parapet walls.

These roads are generally use able in only fair-weather conditions and needing regular maintenance by the beneficiary community or by the Department. In hilly areas such roads are generally being used by 4×4 vehicles and some where by powerful 2×4 vehicles too.

As these roads are not all-weather roads so such roads can not be comfortably used in rainy days. These kinds of roads may also be dangerous for travelers, so only experienced drivers along with reliable vehicles can travel through these roads. Such roads are also lives threatening.

  1. Stone Soled Fair Weather Roads (All Weather Rough Roads):-

Any well constructed Fair-Weather Road having stone soling of 6 inches thickness over its formation sub grade turns into all weather road, also by placing stone soling an impermeable layer is provided which reduces scouring and erosion because of water surface runoff during rainy season. Stone soling reduces water infiltration into formation soil of road causing reduction in fluid pressure and soil pressure behind the retaining walls (As soil itself behaves like fluid by water infiltration into the soil during rainy season) and results in failure of retaining structures.

Stone soling also provides a metal surface over the formation to reduce wheel load pressure to formation (sub grade) and results in reduction of excessive sub grade settlement by spreading wheel load over wider area, also stone soling never gets wasted for more than 1% (on the average) in years to serve and for any further construction towards metalling by either Flexible Pavement or Rigid Pavement and for further pavement it does not need to lay another sub base course but the laid stone soling performs best for sub base course, so it only needs grabbing of the overlying mud and dust before further metalling and surfacing.

Stone soled fair-weather road makes travel a little cumbersome due to its hard, uneven and rough surface. So, these kinds of roads are good for tough vehicles like jeeps, tractors and trucks to travel on. It may cause a little damage to vehicles caused by vibration and hammering effect of traveling through such rough riding surfaces which are not mend for delicate vehicles, but the road in result becomes safe to travel, less scouring, all weather, durable and requiring less maintenance. Also, such roads are good for Bituminous Bound Macadam Road or for Rigid Pavement in future, preferably after possibly best compaction and consolidation of sub grade and such stone soling as sub base, also it does not need any repeated laying of sub base course as the previously laid stone soling performs best for sub base course.

Causes of road failure / damages: –

General causes of failure of roads are as follows:

1- Absence of quality consultancy in designing of projects prior to construction: –

Generally, the schemes of projects proposed for construction are not very well worked and designed according to site and requirement prior to its sanctions, so for every project proper consultancy must be engaged.

Similarly, for all important projects of roads, there should be a compulsion of consultancy for qualitative preparation of schemes; hence to every constructional project the cost of consultancy must be incorporated to have better quality projects resulting in a lot saving by reducing the wastages because of poor quality proposals. This will result in long term economy by the construction of well and properly designed projects.

2- Poor construction due to lack of quality supervision:-

The departments responsible for execution of projects should be fixed to deliver quality projects as per well worked and planned quality prepared by the consultants.

So to improve the quality of construction the capacity building of concerned departments is the prime issue to be addressed thoroughly and for the capacity building, also time to time seen and unseen factors effecting the efficiency and quality should be addressed on very rational and logical grounds but after detailed consultation with every tear and level of such concerned departments.

Also a rational and logical system of incentives and accountability right according to justice is required to be introduced, so by increased quality of planning and monitoring on rational and logical grounds the quality of projects can be improved.

3- Quality Operation and Maintenance: –

The constructed projects must be operated as per system and ethics and for this the beneficiaries and inhabitants need to be educated. Similarly, permanent mechanism of quality maintenance of projects to keep the projects serving best for longer period is important to be focused on.

General observations about the flaws in construction of road projects.

  1. A) – Too Steep Gradients in roads: –

Steep gradients in roads cause difficulty to climb vehicles, resulting damages due to wheels slipping and scratching of road surface, also steep gradients cause high velocity surface runoff during rainy season and results in scouring and erosion of roads. Scouring of roads during rainy season promotes silting in dams too.

Steep gradients usually causes accidents of vehicles too which results in life losses as for many vehicles some times it becomes difficult to climb such high gradients which causes serious accidents and loss of precious lives  occur and it generally happens on steep and defective turns, which can easily be judged by traveling through AJK that usually road turns and bends are marked by the names of people who lost their precious lives on those turns.

  1. B) – Vertical or Near To Vertical, Side Earth Cuttings: –

Generally the earth cutting on sides of roads are steeper than the soil friction angle or angle of repose of soil which causes frequent land sliding during rainy as well as in dry season, hence it results in frequent blockage of roads due to slides, so it is important to take good care about the soil cutting angle according to friction angle of soil (i.e. angle of repose of soil) or it will be further better that the side earths be cut in steps/slices, which can be more helpful for plantation to grow on and will keep the roads safe from sliding as well as it will help to produce wood for future and will also beautify the traveling and area too.

  1. C) – Absence of Longitudinal Drains: –

Generally either the longitudinal drains are non existent or not being constructed properly or because of non maintenance of the section of longitudinal drains, the water during rainy season crosses over the formation of roads resulting in scouring and erosion of soil and surface of roads along with failure of retaining walls. Hence very serious focus over longitudinal drains is required and its right designing according to its technical need of the site.

  1. D) – Absence or Improper Design of Cross Drainages: –

Cross drainages are either nonexistent or not designed according to the requirements of sites i.e. without under standing the fluid mechanics according to site geography. Hence proves to be nonfunctional or nonperforming. Hence qualitative and well-designed cross drainages are compulsory for quality projects of roads.

  1. E) – Poor Quality Retaining Structures: –

The classes of retaining walls being constructed in AJK are as follows:

  1. i) – R.R. Dry Walls: –

R.R. Dry walls means Random Rubble Walls laid Dry i.e. without the use of mortar, meaning the use of stone rubble in the shape it is extracted without being dressed, constructed without any cementing material. R.R. dry walls are good if laid properly and it economizes the cost of projects too. The Phenomenon of such walls is based on following fundamentals.

  • All retaining walls must have enough excavated foundation depth to achieve well consolidated soil providing enough soil bearing to uphold the above coming load of wall without any excessive homogeneous or differential settlement, along with to provide sufficient passive earth pressure to retaining and breast walls.

As the soil retained behind the retaining walls causes pressure on retaining structure to push or move away outwards, this earth pressure is known as active earth pressure and it has affectivity of 30%.

Where as the soil which resists and does not let the retaining wall to move or slide in the direction the fill is forcing to move is called passive earth pressure which we achieve by enough deeper foundations in consolidated soil. This passive earth pressure has effectiveness of about 70% so a foundation depth of just few feet can hold a wall from sliding which is having high raised retained material on other side of wall towards the retained material.

Hence enough deep foundations are compulsory, to provide stability against sliding of retaining walls in outwards direction. But as per experience of field generally the walls laid on sites are not having enough depths.

  • For R.R. dry walls it is better to have width at base of wall as (0.4 to 0.5)h preferably 5h (to have better safety factor) and should not be less than 2.5 feet for low heights of wall having value of 0.5h less than 2.5 feet, where as “h” is the height of wall by keeping this formula we achieve sufficient breadth of foundation as well as it provides sufficient slope on outer surface of retaining walls to keep the net weight (Center of Gravity) on the side of retained material and provides more length of moment arm to the mass of retaining wall against the toe of wall, which makes the wall to provide sufficient counter moment to retaining wall against the moment caused by the retained soil with reference to toe. The formula of 0.5h is valid for walls having height more than 5 feet, where as for walls having height less than 5 feet may be fixed to 2.5 feet width of its foundation. The top of wall is generally fixed to a width of 2 feet. These kinds of walls are good for maximum heights of about 16 feet (5metters), and not for very high raised retaining wall. R.R. dry stone masonry walls should be constructed vertical from inner side of wall towards the retained material and must have slope on outer exposed side i.e. from outer side to keep the net weight away from the over turning point of toe and to keep the net weight (Center of gravity of wall) near to the retained material resulting in counter moment against the toe of wall, which will protect wall from over turning around the toe.

As per field experience the breadth of walls are not being constructed according to any formula, which needs to be addressed with care by the supervisory staff of the executing departments.

  • In foundations of retaining walls lying of lean P.C.C. pad can improve purposeful ness and sustainability, as it will help to distribute the above coming load in uniform and homogeneous manner to the sub soil, also to improve and strengthen the behavior of retaining wall as homogeneous and well integrated structure. To lay P.C.C. on soil in excavated trenches, the use of Polythene Sheet of heavy gauge can further improve the quality of P.C.C. to avoid direct contact of concrete with soil, which will improve quality and strength of concrete. The use of polythene sheet will provide underneath curing by utilizing water of mix for curing from bottom of P.C.C. pad, it will also prevent concrete from intermixing with soil causing weakening of cement bond and it will be serving as sealed shuttering hence the concrete will prove to be strong and durable by not losing either water or cement. Also after placing of P.C.C. in foundation it must be properly cured for at least one week before further construction for its better strength. Where as since now there is no use of P.C.C. base under the walls is adopted in general as practice in AJK and that is why heterogeneous load is placed over soil causing differential settlement and results in failure of walls.
  • For R.R. dry stone masonry possibly, bigger sized stones must be used as the only bond in R.R. dry masonry wall is the weight of stone which causes to have friction bond between the stones of consecutive horizontal surfaces where weight of stone matters, which results the walls into a strong homogeneously bonded structure to retain material if constructed properly. The stone masonry must be of pattern that it should prove to be possibly uni-mass, so the courses of stone masonry must be laid in proper manner. Also, interim “through stones” must be provided to nail the R.R. Dry retaining walls structure and to cause it to have integration between consecutive vertical surfaces. A through stone is a stone having one dimension long enough to cover the whole or maximum breadth of wall.

But generally as per field observations usually the R.R. dry stone masonry walls which experiences failure have apparent good masonry on outer most visible course, where as inside the outer layer inferior quality stones are placed not in the form of courses but in the form of almost filling which instead of strengthening the retaining structures, causes load and hence results in failure of walls. Also it has been observed that the contractors cheat by making walls as stone pitching i.e. having same section width from top to bottom just the stones laid on sloping outer surface of earth to be retained, causing easy failure of retaining walls.

  • The top of retaining walls for R.R. dry stone masonry is generally kept 2 feet wide and for the top layer bigger sized stones having more mass and at least one dimension of 2 feet laid in a manner that the 2 feet dimension of stones should be in 2 feet width direction of wall, to have firm top of wall to be capable enough to resist spilling water flow over the retaining walls during rainfall.

But generally small sized stones are used in walls and at top of walls, which easily moves due to over flowing of water during rains causing complete failure of retaining walls.

  • It’s again good to have at least 3 inches thick (1:2:4) P.C.C. topping on top of all R.R. dry walls along with extra 33% to fill the gaps of R.R. dry masonry and smoothening of surface also for higher retaining walls it will be further good to have P.C.C. bands on different heights and levels of walls as per requirement of site, having thickness of 3 inches with 50% extra for filling the gaps between masonry and to level the surface of P.C.C. band.
  • In sliding areas the roads must be provided with breast walls according to the need of site to reduce sliding. As sliding cause’s big damages to road sections and retaining walls.
  • After rainy seasons timely repair of damaged walls can protect structures from major or total failures.

Summarized causes of failure of R.R. Dry Stone Masonry Retaining Walls

The summarized causes of failure of R.R. Dry stone masonry retaining walls are as follows.

  1. Shallow foundations of retaining walls.
  2. Less base width of retaining walls.
  3. Absence of sufficient outer slopes in construction of retaining walls.
  4. Absence or poor quality laying mechanism of P.C.C. in foundation of retaining walls.
  5. Use of small sized stones in masonry of R.R. Dry retaining walls.
  6. Wrong courses of laid stones. Especially from inner side of retaining walls.
  7. Absence of interim concrete bands in high elevated R.R. Dry retaining walls.
  8. Absence of P.C.C. toping on top of retaining walls.
  9. Absence or insufficient use of through stones in R.R. Dry stone masonry retaining walls.
  10. Roads without metalled surfaces.
  11. Improper or absence of drainage mechanisms of roads i.e. improper or absence of longitudinal and cross drainages.
  12. Absence or improper protection against land sliding.
  13. Absence of timely repair works.
  14. ii) – C.R. Dry Walls:-

It means that course rubble stone laid dry (i.e. dressed rubble masonry without cement mortar). It also has the same phenomenon as R.R. Dry walls, but it has better appearance than R.R. Dry walls. The stones used are course rubble, having dressed surfaces. But as per experience the stones are dressed for only outer most surfaces where as inner surfaces have same rough and quality less stone fillings inside the wall, instead of course rubble proper and qualitative inside masonry courses. C.R. Dry walls are even worst than the R.R. Dry walls as to have appearance of dressed surfaces the stones are broken down to smaller sizes, resulting in lesser weight stones and that is why the friction bond weakens. So such walls proves to be expansive than R.R. dry walls but less stable and durable than the R.R. Dry walls. So C.R. Dry walls should be discouraged.

iii) – C.R. Wet Walls: –

These kinds of walls have course rubbles i.e. dressed stones bonded with cement mortar. But as per experience the outer surfaces are just pointed by the mortar but generally no mortar exists inside the walls, also only outer stones are found dressed where as inner stones are generally observed as random rubble having cavities and hollow spaces, eventually walls from inner side are constructed without mortar.

One of the major reasons of construction of such poor-quality structures is due to lack of monitoring staff available in departments and are insufficient according to the number of projects, so due to insufficient supervisory technical staff and many other reasons it results in poor quality constructions. Also, absence of weep holes is another important reason of failure of C.R. Wet Masonry Walls.

  1. iv) – Wire Crate or Gabion Walls: –

These are the best retaining structures having bond of wire crates rapped around the well arranged bulk of stones and it can afford deformity and even then remains stable, wire crates or gabion walls keep on performing before the ultimate failure so such retaining structures are more sustaining and performing as retaining walls. Preferably heavy gauge wires of not less than “18 gauge” (i.e. 1/18 inches thickness) should be used having net of 4 x 4 inches also preferably bigger sized stones should be used and placed in proper manner of courses. In case of wire crates generally failures are due to use of less gauged wires, bigger sized meshes (i.e. 6 x 6 inches or more), use of small stones and not placed properly inside the wire crate boxes.

  1. v) – Plum Concrete Walls: –

These are the walls generally laid in (1:3:6) concrete with mass of concrete replaced by either 30% stone or 40% stone having different ratios as per suitability. These kind of retaining walls are good in general if laid properly can resist a lot and can provide more stable retaining structure but it proves to be expansive and it can not face deformity, as by having deformity it generally results in total failure as compare to wire crate walls. Causes of failure are improper concrete, excess usage of stone to theft concrete, less elimination of voids by not using any vibrator to achieve denser mass, absence of proper curing, less quality material usage i.e. usage of inferior quality sand or crush. Improper mixes and water cement ratios along with absence of proper curing. For plum concrete walls it is very necessary to provide weep holes at regular vertical and horizontal distances to let the water weep out and protect the retaining structure from hydraulic pressure.

  1. F) – Absence of Arboriculture (Plantation)

Roads must have arboriculture (plantation) on both sides of roads to provide soil stabilization and compensation to unnatural activity of road construction work. So every road estimate must include the cost of arboriculture as well as the up brining and protection cost of plants, at least for the period of initial maturity growth. Arboriculture may help in reduction of site soil scouring, silting to rivers and dams, also will reduce soil erosion and sliding, will also help to improve environment as well as wood generation for future needs. So a proper mechanism needs to be evolved for plantation as well as after words protection and facilitation towards the growth of plants on both sides of roads, so it will stabilize the soil causing protection to roads, also will reduce maintenance and will protect against scouring of soil resulting lesser silting to dams. Along with, it will improve weather environment and will produce wood to boost economy as well. This will beautify the traveling through roads and environment too.

  1. G) – Absence of Camber and super elevation

Camber and super elevation is compulsory for road quality as it helps in controlled driving of vehicle, rapid water drainage from the formation of roads, thus prevents the road formation from being damaged. As per general experience camber and super elevation are not observed during construction. So to ensure camber and super elevation in roads the contractors should be given additional incentive for its construction according to design, the incentive must be devised after consultation with senior field engineers to ensure camber and supper elevation.

  1. H) – Absence of required breast walls

Road sections passing through sliding areas must be provided with breast walls to cater or at least reduce sliding, but the breast walls must be designed according to the site requirements, best judged by professional engineers. For the terrain of AJK good quality gabion wire crates are better for breast walls but as per need good quality plum concrete walls and C.R. wet walls can also be used.

  1. I) – Providing of Impermeable stone metal layer (Stone soling / sub base course) on the surface of properly constructed Fair Weather Roads

The top surface of all fair-weather roads must be provided with a layer of stone metal as sub base course (6” inch thick stone soling). So, after at least one year of proper construction of fair weather road, as in duration of about one year at least the formation and sub grade almost gets sufficiently consolidated then stone soling (sub base course) preferably be laid over it. As the stone soling provides an impermeable metalled surface layer to the top surface of road which will not only make the roads all weather, but it will provide protection against erosion and scouring. It will support the wheel load by reduction of pressure to sub grade and resulting in less settlement of sub grade. Also, by having such impermeable layer the water infiltration inside roads formation during rainy season will also be reduced, causing reduction in fluidity of soil which is retained behind retaining walls, which results in less failure of retaining walls. So absence of stone soling over the surface of road formation (sub grade) generally causes failure to roads. Any further metalling over the stone soling should be delayed for at least further one year to let it be settled and consolidated to its maximum, which may result in durable road after words. Also after sufficient period the stone soling sub base gets settled to its limit and then after maximum consolidation of road surface if metalled by base course and bituminous wearing surface or as rigid pavement proves to be more durable than the roads which have all fresh metalled surfaces. Only a few more percentage of base course be given to cover the ditches, corrugation and ruts appeared on sub base course (stone soled surface) also extra percentage of base course against camber and super elevations may also be given to contractor to ensure the construction of camber and super elevation.

  1. J) – Never to Use filler material in base and sub base courses for Bituminous Bounded Macadam Roads

For metalling of roads, as flexible pavement (Bituminous Bound Macadam Road) or rigid paved roads the use of filler material in sub base course and base course should be avoided as it is the basic cause of failure of any metalled road there is no concept of any water bound macadam course in bituminous bond macadam roads, both of these are entirely different classes and should never be mixed up because of poor concepts. Presence of filler material causes capillary action due to reduction in void sizes and makes water surface tension effective for capillary action from sub grade. Moisture and water get trapped in filler material for longer durations after rainfall and does not let it to be drained down after rain, causing failure of bituminous surface, as bitumen loses its bond with stone in continuous presence of moisture for longer durations.

In almost every kind of filler material especially in soil passing through sieve # 200 a substance named “Mont Merlinoite /Bentonite” is used to be present which absorbs water and swells causing heave formation and again failure to the bituminous surfaces. Also by having filler material it does not let bitumen to have better bond with underlying base course, even after possible cleaning of base course compacted with filler material, only for about 10% to 15% stone of base course can hardly be naked to make just adhesive bond to some extent, which remains insufficient to have proper mechanical bond between base course and black topping, so the bitumen rests over surface just by its own weight without any logical bond which results in appearance of patches in very short period of service. So for sub base course the stone of size 3 to 7 inches and for base course stones of size less than 3” inch i.e. 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches should only be used, and no filler material be used at all, especially material passing sieve # 200 as it is clay and silt which has plastic and liquid behavior along with may posses Montmorillonite/Bentonite, also it facilitates to grow weeds and plants. Hence the items of filler material for sub base and base courses from S.C.R. item No. (21-13) & (21-14) should be eliminated as this item is authenticating filling in Sub base & Base course which is highly non technical item. The schedule of rates of 1979 and 1998 were according to AASHTO that’s why in both of these schedules against base course only 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches stone laying was mentioned and there was no any kind of filler material mentioned, as if filler material is to be used according to AASHTO specifications then its sieves no. passing and retaining along with percentages must have been mentioned to under stand its grading and proportion accordingly, which was never mentioned there. Also, for sub base and base course the compaction in form of relative dry density according to AASHTO is 100% in field, which is possible if there is no use of filler material, but if the soil is well graded then it is merely impossible to achieve 100% AASHTO compaction, as it is relative dry density. For compaction of sub base course and base course the terminology of mechanical compaction is used which is achieved by mechanical inter locking of stones and not by compaction of voids with the help of filler material in it, as that is not termed as mechanically inter locked compaction, presence of voids in well compacted base course and sub base course is good for its durability and purposefulness. Just because of the use of filler material there is always saving of Bitumen and crush stone for any thickness as compared to the standard consumption mentioned in books for any thickness per 100 sft.. If no filler material is used, the over all cost of construction reduces although more bitumen and crushed aggregate is used just because of cost of filler material its laying, watering, then cleaning and for the whole process and duration costing rent of machinery and cost of labor. The use of filler material is not logically convinced but is adopted in sub continent just by thoughtless practice or blind following. Sciences believe in logic and Engineering is purely based on logic.

  1. K) – Use of items named as bed run and pit run in place of sub base course and base course should be avoided in Southern Region of AJK.

In last few years items of bed run and pit run are introduced in southern region of AJK in place of sub base course and may be even for base course too. Where as the material used as bed run and pit run is good for embankment raising and should only be used as better material of sub grade embankment and filling in floors of civil structures but in no case,  it is a better replacement of sub base course or base course.

Instead of bed run and pit run the bigger pebbles/rounded stones available in river beds and deltas of Mirpur and Bhimber are good igneous stones which became sedimentary by the transportation of water and have been grounded from its outer surface all around by the flowing water of rivers in millions of years resulting almost rounded shaped stones available in large quantity. So the stones having at least one dimension of 7 inches is good for sub base course if laid properly and its crushed stuff of size 1½ to 2½ inches is good enough for base course. Hence this locally available stone should be used for metalling, instead of bed run and pit run. The only reservation about these stones is for its outer smooth surface that it may not provide good bond but it doesn’t matter at all, and this stone can confidently be used as sub base course, base course and for crush to be used in bituminous wearing surface or crushed to size can also be used in cement concrete. As the stone will hopefully fulfill all the specifications, of AASHTO standards for the stones required in sub base course, base course and for bituminous wearing surface along with for concrete too. So it is requested to eliminate item No. 21-15(b) from C.S.R.

  1. L) – Laying of bitumen in hot and dry weather in hot form for its all layers of premix or T.S.T. and its compaction procedure to be improved.

Bituminous wearing surfaces must always be laid in hot and dry seasons, so for this the annual periods must be defined with conditions and should be followed strictly by the departments. Also, all the layers from tack coat to finished surface of bitumen courses must be laid hot and dry in consecutive courses.

For compaction of bituminous surface pneumatic tires rollers having three consecutive axes should be introduced to avoid linear corrugations and to produce smooth riding surfaces. As in AJK generally steel tire rollers are used to compact sub grade, sub base, base and wearing bitumen surfaces. Also, during compaction of bituminous wearing surface, the steel tires are kept wet by water to keep bitumen from sticking to steel wheels of rollers. Where as by watering over bituminous surface and to steel wheels the temperature of bitumen is immediately dropped down, resulting the bitumen to resist compaction and hence bitumen remains un compacted and porous, also the bond between different layers of bitumen weakens. The best laying of wearing surface is to lay hot bitumen using premix pavers and then compaction by pneumatic tired rollers without the use of water for better quality compacted premix.

  1. M) – For resurfacing the previous surfaces should never be demolished

If there be no problem with the raising of road surface, then it is preferred to never demolish the previously existing surfaces of existing metalled roads. And if only bituminous surface is to be placed then the previous bituminous surface should only be cleaned and dried and thus over it hot tack coat be laid before the new bituminous surface, as the previously existing surface will make the new surface more safe and durable.

Similarly, if further base course is required than over the previous surface simply lay the base course of required thickness directly without scratching or dismantling the previous structure, just compact the additional base course and lay a new surface of bituminous wearing surface over it. As the previously existing road is best to prove under load because of its possible best consolidation over span of time also by being firm and having previous bituminous surface it helps to stop capillary action of water from sub grade to road top layer of wearing surface.

  1. N) – Providing of stone curbs on either sides i.e. on edges of roads around sub base and base course inside the shoulder / berms:-

To keep the sub base and base course confine during compaction and to restrain the stone of sub base course and base course from lateral movement during compaction and under repeated loads of traffic, side stone curbs should be introduced between the stone metal and berms. Hence an item of curb on edge of metal should be introduced in roads construction. Providing of stone curb may also be helpful to protect road formation after the shoulder/berms gets eroded during rainy seasons.

  1. O) – Good quality construction material available in AJK:-

AJK is enriched with almost every kind of construction materials. There are three major classes of rocks:

  • Igneous Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Sedimentary Rocks

1- Igneous Rocks

AJK has plenty of best quality igneous rocks which have following properties:.

  1. High crushing strength
  2. Very low porosity i.e. very less water absorbent.
  3. Very good to resist weather effects.
  4. Very good texture to provide good bond.

So such stones are very good for load bearing civil structures.

General properties of such stones are as follows.

  • Good quality igneous rocks present in AJK provides stone having C.B.R. value of more than 80%.
  • A.A. (Loss Angels Abrasion test) value < 20% after 500 revolutions, which is good for bituminous surfaces and stones with L.A.A. < 40% are good for base course.
  • I. (Flakiness Index) < 25%
  • Water absorption <1% → 2%.
  • % loss in soundness test <12%

So, the stones which qualify the above properties should be adopted for road construction as per specifications.

2- Metamorphic Rocks

AJK has enough metamorphic material from where sand and good quality stones for road construction can be achieved.

3- Sedimentary Rocks

AJK has very good sedimentary rocks which can be help full to produce very good quality construction materials as at many places of AJK lime stone, clay and shale are available which are enough to have cement factories in AJK. So, a lot of cement industry can be established at many sites of AJK to produce cement. Hence the rocks of AJK are full of useful substances and minerals which can be helpful for construction and other industries.

But for easy and immediate extraction and use of all good quality construction materials which are available in AJK, proper legislations are required for its easy, un-hurdled extraction. So where ever the good quality material is available should be taken up as asset and property of AJK, so it should be available to all who need it un hurdled and without any litigation.

Thus, by having local materials of construction it will save a lot of cost of construction and will help to generate local employment and enterprises. Hence after detailed analysis the quarries are needed to be marked and the Government of AJK has to legislate to make it possible for easy and speedy extraction. A lot work is required to explore such valuable available construction material to be adopted and used.

Summarized Suggestions for good and sustainable roads in AJK

  1. Every project, especially road must first be designed by concerned professional consultant engineers according to site requirements prior to execution. Hence consultancy charges must become compulsory part of every project’s initial cost for qualitative planning of projects.
  2. Roads must be designed to have standard grade and for this matter Long Section must be prepared and finalized according to standard norms and then based on designed L-Section, cross sections be prepared, so in every development department there must be posts of surveyors with every Assistant Engineer/Sub Divisional Officer.
  3. The linear grade in straight part of road must not exceed from 5% to 7% and for unavoidable circumstances the limiting gradient for a length not more than 100 feet should not exceed by 10%. Similarly, the gradient on U-turns should not exceed from 3% but in unavoidable circumstances it should not exceed by 5% (limiting gradient for U-turns).
  4. Roads for Rural sector should not be of gross formation width less than 26 feet having carriage way of 22 feet to facilitate two way traffic on all the length of roads and having 2 feet wide shoulders on both sides of the carriage way, with 2 feet wide top of retaining wall on one side and 2 feet wide longitudinal drain on other side, so the total width should not be less than 30 feet. Similarly urban roads must not be less than 43 feet i.e. having 33 feet carriage way to facilitate two way traffic with comfortable and safe over taking margin with 3 feet wide shoulders on both sides of the roads (i.e. gross carriage way of 39 feet) and than having 2 feet wide top width of retaining walls on one side and 2 feet longitudinal drain on other side. As AJK is almost hilly area and road width should be sufficient enough to have safe traveling as in this hilly area at many places there is no margin of crossing of vehicles traveling in opposite directions hence it results in accidents causing damage and loss of precious lives. Safety of the travelers should be the top priority.

Instead of dealing with greater lengths of roads the priority should be given to quality of the roads. Quality communication is one important component which will give boost to tourism in AJK resulting in socio-economic change of the area. Good quality communication will result in boost to numerous kinds of local enterprises as it is one of the fundamental facilities for local enterprises to nourish.

  1. The entire earth work cutting should be according to the friction angle or angle of repose of soil i.e. less than 70 degree especially in non rocky soils or cut into slices or steps in a way to provide places for arboriculture having gross tangential profile of less than 70 degree.
  2. The longitudinal side drains may have “V” shape, instead of trapezoidal to facilitate self cleaning during rain fall, as well as to easy hosting of the wheel of vehicle thus providing extra margin of travel in case of no option. Also the wheel of vehicle will be able to easily go in and come out of the trench of longitudinal drain without harming vehicle or to travelers, so it can provide extra passage margin in case of emergency.
  3. Where ever there is threat of sliding, it must be provided with breast walls, which should be properly designed and best constructed by gabion wire crates to be able to afford deformity due to being malleable (flexible).
  4. Every road which is by compulsion to be constructed with minimum gross width of 18 feet, must have at least six over taking points per kilometer of gross width not less than 30 feet wide, having carriage way of 22 feet along with 2 feet wide shoulder/berms on each side and the length of crossing point not less than 50 feet. All U-turns must be treated as over taking points and than the remaining numbers of over taking points per kilometer be placed at regular distances in the remaining parts of narrow road lengths to facilitate over taking, parking or easy return of vehicles.
  5. All the U-turns must have outer radius of not less than 45 feet for rural roads and minimum 60 feet for all the urban hilly terrain roads.
  6. Roads must be provided with camber and super elevation as per design and standards.
  7. All the retaining walls must be of good quality and the methods to be adopted may preferably be gabion wire crates, plum concrete, R.R. Dry stone masonry or C.R. Wet walls as per requirement of site. But closely monitored during construction to ensure quality, so a lot of supervisory staff will be required to ensure better monitoring and better quality of projects.
  8. Roads must have arboriculture on both sides of roads to stabilize the soil and for many other benefits mentioned earlier.
  9. All the rural roads must at least be provided by a layer of 6-inch-thick stone soling to make it all weather, minimum after one year of construction of fair-weather road to let the fair weather road surface consolidated to its maximum. Also, by providing layer of 6-inch-thick stone soling the surface of the road becomes impermeable, non-scouring and will be able to resist excessive settlement of sub grade, as well as the failure of retaining walls will also be reduced.
  10. Parapets at regular distance of about 50ft must be provided on top of all retaining walls in hilly areas to increase traffic safety and at closer distance of about 25ft (maximum) on turns to protect the driver from being misguided.
  11. The humps and jumps in longitudinal directions of roads must be reduced to make the trafficking comfortable as well as to improve the safety for travelers by keeping the view clear to drivers instead of blind moves due to big humps jumps, corrugation and ditches. So additional cost to reduce humps and jumps be given to projects of roads but the quality must not be compromised in any case.
  12. Undue bends must be avoided, and the roads alignment must be designed to keep it straight to possible limit. To make traveling more comfortable in all respect.
  13. q) For metalling of roads, as flexible pavement (Bituminous Bound Macadam Road) or rigid paved road the use of filler material in sub base course and base course should be avoided as it is the basic cause of failure of any metalled road there is no concept of any water bound macadam course in bituminous bond macadam roads, both of these are entirely different classes and should never be mixed up because of poor concepts. Presence of filler material causes capillary action due to reduction in void sizes and makes water surface tension effective for capillary action from sub grade. Moisture and water gets trapped in filler material for longer durations after rainfall and does not let it to be drained down after rain, causing failure of bituminous surface, as bitumen looses its bond with stone in continuous presence of moisture for longer durations.

In almost every kind of filler material especially in soil passing through sieve # 200 a substance named “Montmorillonite /Bentonite” is use to be present which absorbs water and swells causing heave formation and again failure to the bituminous surfaces. Also by having filler material it does not let bitumen to have better bond with underlying base course, even after possible cleaning of base course compacted with filler material, only for about 10% to 15% stone of base course can hardly be naked to make just adhesive bond to some extent, which remains insufficient to have proper mechanical bond between base course and black topping, so the bitumen rests over surface just by its own weight without any logical bond which results in appearance of patches in very short period of service. So for sub base course the stone of size 3 to 7 inches and for base course stones of size less than 3” inch i.e. 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches should only be used, and no filler material be used at all, especially material passing sieve # 200 as it is clay and silt which has plastic and liquid behavior along with may posses Montmorillonite/Bentonite, also it facilitates to grow weeds and plants. Hence the items of filler material for sub base and base courses from S.C.R. should be eliminated as this item is authenticating and highly non technical item. The schedule of rates of 1979 and 1998 were according to AASHTO that’s why in both of these schedules against base course only 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches stone laying was mentioned and there was no any kind of filler material mentioned, as if filler material is to be used according to AASHTO specifications then its sieves no. passing and retaining along with percentages must have been mentioned to under stand its grading and proportion accordingly, which was never mentioned there. Also, for sub base and base course the compaction in form of relative dry density according to AASHTO is 100% in field, which is possible if there is no use of filler material, but if the soil is well graded then it is merely impossible to achieve 100% AASHTO compaction, as it is relative dry density. For compaction of sub base course and base course the terminology of mechanical compaction is used which is achieved by mechanical inter locking of stones and not by compaction of voids with the help of filler material in it, as that is not termed as mechanically inter locked compaction, presence of voids in well compacted base course and sub base course is good for its durability and purposefulness, Just because of the use of filler material there is always saving of Bitumen and crush stone for any thickness as compared to the standard consumption mentioned in books for any thickness per 100 sft.. If no filler material is used, the over all cost of construction reduces although more bitumen and crushed aggregate is used just because of cost of filler material its laying, watering, then cleaning and for the whole process and duration costing rent of machinery and cost of labor. The use of filler material is not logically convinced but is adopted in sub continent just by thoughtless practice or blind following. Sciences believe in logic and Engineering is purely based on logic.

  1. r) Regular maintenance must be maintained to keep the structures to serve best and for timely proper maintenance enough allocations of funds should always be available with the concerned departments.
  2. s) Toll system may be introduced in AJK to generate funds for O&M of roads along with generation of funds to deal with communication sector of AJK for improvement, up gradation and construction of new projects according to need and requirement.
  3. t) Projects must never be compromised to reduce initial cost of projects on the cost of poor specifications and quality.
  4. u) Instead of construction and up gradation of more lengths of roads every year, it is much more important to have quality projects against the available resources to have sustainable development, which may result in lesser length of roads dealt every year. Quality is more important than to have quantity
  5. For all high altitude areas which are in snow zones, mild longitudinal grades but broader rigid pavements should be preferred having 6 inches thick stone soling laid over well cambered and super elevated compacted sub grade, than laying of lean concrete of minimum 3” inches thickness with 50% to 100% extra lean concrete quantity to fill the voids of stone soling depending the nature and quality of lade stone soling, and after lean concrete a minimum layer of 4 inches thick (1:2:4) concrete divided in panels should be preferred, instead of having bituminous roads. As bitumen gets spoiled in presence of long-term moisture causing damage to roads but for rigid pavement very controlled grade of road is compulsory to keep the traffic travel in all seasons of year.
  6. Drainages of required design and quality must be provided in roads.
  7. For quality roads according to proper design the required land must be provided by the beneficiary community according to the design without any litigation or hurdle to ensure quality of road. Hence legislation for acquiring of land according to design of professional engineer is compulsory, to avoid wastage of resources and to achieve sustainable and qualitative development. Hence the projects should only be initiated if the beneficiary community is completely supportive to quality project construction. For the availability of land as per design, the revenue department of AJK should also perform responsibility.
  8. Good quality local materials which prove the standards required by specifications should be utilized to reduce the cost of constructions. But to mark the quarries and easy extraction of material legislation by the Government of AJK will be required. So that there should not be any litigation for its extraction.
Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Submissions Regarding the Issue of AJ&amp;K, Occupied Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan along with Acci Chin

  1. A) By going through following;
  • Article 1(2)(d) & 257 of Constitution of Pakistan 1973.
  • Article 370 of Constitution of India.
  • Resolution adopted by the United Commission for India and Pakistan on 13th August 1948, Document No. 1100, Para 75, dated the 9th November, 1948.
  • Karachi Agreement dated: 28-04-1949.
  • The cease fire agreement made between Military Representatives of India and Pakistan at Karachi on 27th of July 1948. Regarding which hostility in State of Jammu & Kashmir got suspended on 1st January 1949 etc.

 

  1. B) Following salient features of issue are as per follows;
  • That as per the history of many hundred years the whole of the territory of State of Jammu & Kashmir was practically comprised of Occupied Jammu, Kashmir & Valley, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Gilgit Baltistan and some where it is being claimed that even Chitral was also its part including Acci Chin. But as the disintegration took place the major components came in to being are Occupied Kashmir, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Gilgit Baltistan and Acci Chin.
  • That as per the Resolution of United Nation dated: 13th of August 1948 the issue will be resolved through plebiscite and for that matter to keep the situation intact the outside settlers are not allowed to have state ship (nationality) or buy property to keep the original situation intact, for to have fair plebiscite, and for this very reason the Gilgit Baltistan should not be separated from the existing Azad Jammu & Kashmir in its nature to keep pressure internationally and not to negate their votes in plebiscite. As by being a province or semi province its status may weaken the stance of Kashmiri people over the international forums and may also be exploited by India in its favor to make the occupied Jammu & Kashmir its permanent territory.
  • That for last about more than 70 years Pakistan as well as India has beard a lot cost over one of this basic issue as well as the loss of precious lives of civilians as well as military, wasted a lot of resources, fought wars, built mass destruction weapons etc. hence invaluable losses occurred, but again it will never be worth full to loose the case of Kashmir at this stage by apparently separating Gilgit Baltistan from Azad Jammu & Kashmir and making it a province of Pakistan, rather it may also be given a semi status of State like AJ&K instead of declaring it a province of Pakistan.

 

  1. C) Proposals regarding the solution of this state;
  • That the credible leader ship who are clear from any controversy of Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan which are within the indirect administration of Pakistan along with the valuable and notable leader ship of these areas settled in Pakistan and the Senior Law knowing credible people like Retired Judges, Senior Lawyers, Retired Bureaucrats and other notables of both the Areas be provided with good opportunity to let them negotiate and come to some workable solution and any such workable solution first must be communicated by them to their concerned people and may seek some consensus. But if any such forum remains failure then the Pakistan Government through its concerned agencies help the joint forum to bring them all to some workable consensus.
  • That it will be better that nothing should be imposed but may take any shape but by consensus of stake holders.
  • That it must generate a message to international forums as well that nothing is being imposed, so that the major issue of Occupied Kashmir may not get damaged.
  • That no any hasty action will be good for the greater cause of Kashmir, and it must first be experienced through such kind of joint consultation to provide opportunity of free will and message for internationally be recognized for rest of the issues as well.
  • That if no any consensus evolves out of any such exercise then an option of free and fair referendum can also be opted, to get greater consensus.
  • That whatever be the outcomes of any such consensus but a message must prevail that for the plebiscite whenever it may take place both the AJ&K as well as Gilgit Baltistan will be the active participants in any such plebiscite even the settlers outside of the areas of both including Pakistan, India and the people residing and got settled in Pakistan and other countries of the world, all will be the voters in any such plebiscite.
  • That by all means a very just, free and fair approach and method may result in long lasting and fruitful results.
  • That no any idea be imposed without taking all the stake holders on board and without the will of stake holders.
  • That to finalize it in due course of time, the time period may be specified and the courses of process may also be fixed for not to be deviated by any.
  • That at least all the political parties and important social forums through their representatives including Bars and Press must be taken on board.
  • That ultimately a sense of consensus and justice will create a good impact over the greater issue of Jammu & Kashmir.
Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

THE IMMEDIATE SOLUTION AND PRIORITIES FOR PAKISTAN

That the better solution we have right now is that all the corrupt and having other serious flaws Politicians must be removed from membership of Assemblies under Article 62 & 63 and then may provide representation to rest of all the credible members of Assemblies in proportion to their last vote mandate which they had in previous election.

The change of system from Parliamentary to Presidential form of democracy like in America, also the new Constitution must be Secular with a restriction that no any law against the directions of Islam could ever be made.

Then right sizing of government machinery, right person on right job through fair merits as per the procedure in JAC UK, remunerations to be logical in Public Sector, to bring the Government machinery out of corruption by compulsion.

Reforms in judiciary by removing / abolishing all the articles which permit an experienced lawyer to be placed as judge in superior judiciary, induction from initial level in judiciary as per the process of JAC UK and in all the other Civil Services, mechanism of jury in all the Courts of Law to apply check over the acts of the Judiciary, also for every appeal against any judgment of lower Court the concerned judge or judges of lower judiciary who made the judgment in appeal must also be listed in respondents on top and if the judgment is found wrong by appellate court, the judge of lower judiciary must at least be conveyed displeasure over poor judgment or any other penalization may also be devised and such displeasure must be accounted for while promotions of any such judge take place also a mechanism of silent voting of all the concerned Bars to validate the credibility of any such Judge under promotion and in panel, but if any judge be found maneuvering lawyers of the Bar in his favor on cogent evidences be immediately and permanently rejected for any promotion ever, the role of Judicial Council be expedited and similarly the part of Bar Council Acts regarding proceedings upon the complaints against lawyers on their mal acts against the justice be expedited. Even the Bar Council Acts is to be framed through legislative assembly and not by the Bar Councils to convert it to a proper law. Also for every vexatious and frivolous stance taken by any lawyer the party and lawyer of the party must be penalized under Section 35-A and 35 of CPC and similar kind of law may also be introduced in Cr.P.C. as well and heavy penalties be awarded. Also for some numbers of such penalties licenses of lawyers must be suspended and further even it may be cancelled. Even the degrees of all the lawyers be verified and if found fudge or fake be discarded from profession and even be penalized under civil and criminal proceedings.

Then accountability across the board through out Pakistan and through free and fair open trial and the people found guilty be penalized also all the excess they posses to their justified owning inside Pakistan and even outside Pakistan be nationalized and the person be permanently black listed for any business or role with the public sector of Pakistan. Writ of Law to be ensured at every level of society without any discrimination firstly by the Government, then by Judiciary and at the end by the Public at large.

Pakistan is to be a welfare state.

Then prime focus to followings;

  • Justice which includes accountability as well.
  • All the system to be made logical.
  • Strengthening of Institutions.
  • Value of Time.
  • Value of competence.
  • Value of hard work.
  • Pay back of all loans.
  • Infrastructure development.
  • Improvement in social services.
  • Taxation to be reduced, simplified and ensured.
  • Capacity building.
  • Self reliance.

Pakistan is much more important than any person, party or system.

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

All the corrupt and criminal politicians must be taken on to task under Article 62 & 63 till they prove them selves innocent. Also after removing the people who are under charges a National Government by providing proportional representation to all the Political Parties according to the previous election results be provided and only the credible ones be given portfolios and then on one hand accountability across the board in accordance with law and on the other hand reformulation of Constitution is required and it must be shifted from Parliamentary to Presidential form of democracy as in America, which must demonstrate separation of powers and role of all the three piers of state i.e. Legislative body, Executive and Judiciary having all full powers and check of every two over the third.

Also the mechanism of induction in judiciary is to be reframed in accordance to the procedure laid down in JAC (Judicial Appointment Commission UK).

Also the mechanism of JAC must be adopted in every selection on merit at every level. Then right sizing of all the system, remunerations be logical, right person on merit to be placed on right job and writ of law be established. Then it can be predicted that the right people to lead be produced automatically by the passage of time as present system can never produce better leadership.

Also the monitory values every one has within Pakistan and out side which after thorough and fair investigation and trial proves to be unjustified, must be nationalized and the person is to be black listed for any concern to government and all such accountability must start at least from 1971 when west Pakistan was separated. Accountability of all but the priority must be from top to bottom and importance of institutions.

The issues to be addressed on priority are not;

  • The Police culture.
  • The Patwari culture.
  • The health issues.
  • The education issues.
  • The terrorism.
  • The issue of tax.
  • The electricity.
  • The busses and trains.

But the most important issues to be addressed are as per follows;

  • The system to be corrected, by change of Constitution mainly and then reforms in all the subordinate laws.
  • The qualitative leadership.
  • The indiscriminate and qualitative justice to be ensured first by the Government and then by Judiciary, also reforms in Judicial system.
  • Right sizing of system.
  • Right person to be on right job, selection method as per laid in JAC UK, to be adopted in all merit based selections.
  • Accountability across the board.
  • Remunerations in every field are to be rationalized as per well convinced logics based on needs, society, rates etc. to bring the Public sector out of corruption by compulsion.
  • The system to be made logical to ultimately produce logical results.
  • De-Politicization of whole of the Public Sector and Government machinery.

Rest all will automatically be corrected in result by the time.

We as a nation want prosperous, dignified, strong Pakistan. And it may be lead by any better Pakistani having at least following qualities;

  • Fear of Allah.
  • Intention to be good in comparison.
  • Capability and credibility.
  • Democratic in approach.
  • Ensure justice at every level and be able to ensure writ of law.
  • Improve system.
  • Right size the system.
  • Place right person on right job through fair mechanism and may follow the guide lines laid in JAC UK.
  • Having value of time.
  • Possess value of competence and abilities.
  • Possess value of hard work.
  • Ensure merit and fair accountability.
  • Difference between right and wrong must be very clearly established.

What is desired for our nation and country simply are as per follows;

  • A better person by integrity, patriot, dignified of good character and capabilities and Pakistani to lead Nation.
  • A better system to deliver.
  • Writ of law, accountability, merit, justice, peace, prosperity, opportunities to be ensured.
    It does not matter that who the Pakistani does so.
  • Present democracy is not a democracy but a system of jungle, might is right, corruption, crime and non accountability, leakages unanswered does not mean that we are having democracy.
  • We need quality of life with integrity which must ensure peace of mind, justice, safety, integrity and prosperity of Pakistan which may be provided by any better Pakistani.
  • Regarding the Civil Services of Pakistan

“For peanut remunerations only the services of monkeys can be had but for competent people to serve the remunerations must be logical and more than market based along with segregation and filtration to take place and all the people who are incompetent and corrupt must be thrown out to improve the set up of Civil Services in the best interest of Nation and public at large”.

Sincere,
Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick,

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

PRIORITIES OF NATION TO BE SET BY THE GOVERNMENT

The prime prerogative and responsibility of any government are to establish justice at every level, to establish writ of law, good governance by right sizing of system and placing of right person on right job, defense of country, to establish better foreign and interior policies of state, energy, water and all the other amenities and then education, health, and then all the others. Construction and establishing of Metro buses and orange trains are as a father of a house without going in to that there is no food in house, no electricity, no water, no protection by unsafe doors and windows, no education to children, no any health and hygiene environments, but any such father keep borrowing on heavy markups from Neighbors and known ones and keep bring toys for children and on one hand putting loans on house and on other hand keep thieving from the borrowed amounts and establishing him self outside of house. We as a nation and our leadership as well as government have to lay down the priorities.

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

For better Pakistan following are the fundamental suggestions.

  • Qualitative leadership which must have following properties.
  • Fear of Allah.
  • Intention to deliver best in the best interest of Nation and world.
  • Greed less.
  • Having no any discrimination other than just right and wrong.
  • Strong will to establish indiscriminate and qualitative justice without any of the personal interest or obligation.
  • The best competent.
  • Character full.
  • Truth full.
  • Having value of time.
  • Lead by example.
  • Hard working.
  • Integrity full.
  • Better system to deliver and for better system to deliver following are some suggestions.
  • There is no any system better than democracy but we have to change the system from Parliamentary to Presidential like in America which even has close resemblance to our initial Islamic states i.e. Rule by one man, Legislative body to be separate from executive, Judiciary be superior and no any exemption to any before Judiciary where as the Judiciary accountable by jointly executive and legislative body, Selection of rulers by Shura and not by common people. So we must take the basic idea from American system of democracy and indirect election through mechanism of electoral and voter must be specified by age and education.
  • All the candidates and voters must have some standard of education which must be well thought in accordance with their role.
  • The Constitution must be Secular but with restrictions that no any law against the teachings of Islam be allowed. As there is no any threat to Islam as in Pakistan there are more than 95% Muslims.
  • The system of Judiciary and induction in to be changed and improved as is laid in JAC UK even similar system to be adopted on every induction on merit every where.

3)       Indiscriminate and qualitative Justice at every level of society to be ensured by Government, Executive, Judiciary and public at large.

4)       Strong sense of Right and Wrong is to be developed.

5)       Pakistan to be welfare state and it must be the responsibility of Government to take care of all citizens.

6)       Indiscriminate and open accountability from top to bottom.

7)       Right sizing of system.

8)       Right persons on fair merits without discrimination to be placed on right job.

9)       Focus to quality education at every level and in easy reach of every body to be ensured by government.

10)     Quality health service to be provided to every body and ensured by the Government.

11)     Taxes must be minimum, simple to understand by every body and its collection must be indiscriminate and ensured.

12)     Accountability at least from 1971.

13)     Instead of giving strong punishments on financial corruptions some comfortable punishments along with all the recoveries which they do not justify be nationalized and first all the loans of the nation be paid back to bring it out of the influence of foreign hands and then if shortage exist I hope the nation will pay it back if there be the credibility of Government.

Rest all will be corrected automatically.

 

Sincere,
Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick,

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Few basic aims of any government are as per follows to be dealt with priority;

 

  1. To form a more perfect union and unity among all the regions of state i.e. One of the first functions of government is to form a more perfect union, meaning that the government will treat all the regions of the state fairly and work to keep them together.
  2. To establish indiscriminate and qualitative justice at every level of society and state i.e. the government is to establish justice by protecting those that follow the laws of the country and by punishing those that do not.
  3. To ensure domestic tranquility i.e. the government also functions to ensure domestic tranquility. This function is meant the government with ensuring that its citizens can enjoy a calm, happy life “in a godlike and dignified manner.”
  4. To provide common defense i.e. the government is to provide for the common defense, making sure that all lives in the country is defended from warring nations or domestic threats.
  5. To promote the general welfare i.e. the government must also provide for the common welfare of the nation, ensuring that all citizens are given the opportunity to have productive lives with an acceptable standard of living.
  6. Tosecure the blessings of liberty to its citizens and future generations i.e. the government must defend the ideas of liberty for all who live in and will be born in the state for future generations.
  7. That there can be many other different functions of government besides the conventional ideas.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick (BBB),

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 20 independent power producers that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.

For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan’s supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Pakistan’s electricity producers are now seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors which indicates it to be one of the key unresolved issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country faces growing shortages.

As of 2013 massive long-standing electricity shortages continued with long-standing failure to provide reliable service and rampant corruption being met by public protests, unauthorized connections, and refusal by consumers to pay for intermittent service. Electricity generation in Pakistan has shrunk by up to 50% in recent years due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels. In 2008, availability of power in Pakistan falls short of the population’s needs by 15% Pakistan was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit. Load Shedding and power blackouts have become severe in Pakistan in recent years. The main problem with Pakistan’s poor power generation is rising political instability, together with rising demands for power and lack of efficiency. Provincial and federal agencies, who are the largest consumers, often do not pay their bills. China, Central Asia and Iran have been offering to export electricity to Pakistan at subsidized rates but the government of Pakistan has not yet responded to the offers for unknown reasons. The country has begun diversifying its energy producing capacity by investing in wind and solar energy parks to help offset the energy shortage while larger projects such as the Diamer-Basha Dam and new nuclear plants are under construction.[

Installed capacity

  • Electricity – total installed capacity: 22,797 MW (2014)
  • Electricity – Sources (2014)
    • fossil fuel – 14,635 MW – 64.2% of total(oil-35.2% + gas-29%)
    • hydro – 6,611 MW – 29% of total
    • nuclear – 1,322 MW – 5.8% of total
    • average demand-17,000 MW
    • shortfall-between 4,000 MW and 5,000 MW

There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA (Water & Power Development Authority), KESC (Karachi Electric Supply Company), IPPs (Independent Power Producers) and PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission).

The break-up of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of Jan-2012) is as follows:

WAPDA Hydel

  • Tarbela 3578 MW
  • Mangla 1000 MW
  • Ghazi – Barotha 1450 MW
  • Warsak 243 MW
  • Chashma 184 MW
  • Dargai 20 MW
  • Rasul 22 MW
  • Shadi-Waal 13.5 MW
  • Nandi pur 14 MW
  • Kurram Garhi 4 MW
  • Renala 1 MW
  • Chitral 1 MW
  • Jagran (AK) 30 MW
  • Khankhwar 72 MW
  • AllaiKhwar 121 MW
  • Gomal Zam Dam 17 MW
  • Jabban 22 MW
  • Duber Khwar Dam 130 MW
  • Total Hydel 6,823 MW

WAPDA Thermal

  • Gas Turbine Power Station, Shahdra 59 MW
  • Steam Power Station, Faisalabad 132 MW
  • Gas Turbine Power Station, Faisalabad 244 MW
  • Gas Power Station, Multan 195 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Muzaffargarh 1350 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Guddu 1655 MW
  • Gas Turbine Power Station, Kotri 174 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Jamshoro 850 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Larkana 150 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Quetta 35 MW
  • Gas Turbine Power Station, Panjgur 39 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Pasni 17 MW
  • Total Thermal 4811 MW

WAPDA’s total hydel and thermal capacity is 11,272 MW. Hydel electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between minimum of 2,414 MW and maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.

Karachi Electric Supply Company

  • Thermal Power Station, Korangi 316 MW
  • Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi 80 MW
  • Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE 100 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim 1260 MW

KESC total generation capacity is 1756 MW.

Independent Power Producers (IPPs)

  • Hub Power Project 1292 MW
  • AES Lalpir Ltd, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar 362 MW
  • AES Pak Gen, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar 365 MW
  • Altern Energy Ltd, Attock 29 MW
  • Fauji Kabirwala Power Company, Khanewal 157 MW
  • Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd, Korangi 136 MW
  • Habibullah Coastal Power Limited 140 MW
  • Japan Power Generation, Lahore 120 MW
  • Kohenoor Energy Limited, Lahore 131 MW
  • Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki 232 MW
  • Rousch Power, Khanewal 412 MW
  • Saba Power Company, Sheikhupura 114 MW
  • Southern Electric Power Company Limited, Raiwind 110 MW
  • Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi 126 MW
  • Uch Power Limited, Dera Murad Jamali, Nasirabad 586 MW
  • Attock Gen Limited, Morgah Rawalpindi 165 MW
  • Atlas Power, Sheikhupura 225 MW
  • Engro Energy Limited, Karachi —– MW
  • Kot Addu Power Company Limited (Privatized) 1638 MW
  • Saif Power Plant Qadirabad, Sahiwal 225 MW
  • Sitara Energy 80 MW
  • Nishat Chunian Power 200 MW
  • Nishat Power Limited 200 MW

Total generation capacity of IPPs is 7070 MW.

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

  • KANUPP 137 MW
  • CHASNUPP-1 325 MW
  • CHASNUPP-2 340 MW

Total electricity generated from PAEC is 802 MW.

The total power generation capacity of Pakistan is 21,143 MW and the electricity demand (as of April 2010) is 14,500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10,000 MW.

Electricity production

  • Electricity – production: 88.42 TWh (2005)
  • Electricity – production by source (2003)
    • fossil fuel: 65% of total
    • hydro: 31% of total
    • nuclear: 4% of total

Electricity production Added Since 2008

  • 2011

Chashma Nuclear Power Complex Chasnup-2 300 Mw 2011.

  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

Solar Plant Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park 100m Mw 2015 with increase to 1000 Mw in 2016

Electricity consumption

  • Electricity – consumption: 74.62 TWh (2004)
  • Electricity – exports: 0%
  • Electricity – imports: 0%
  • Electricity Consumption per Capita = 430.183 kWh/capita (2006)

Effects of natural and man-made disasters

During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2008 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the floods and rainfalls the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of natural disasters on nuclear plants specially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, since the plant lies over a geological fault. Due to over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation. some environmental impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact on Pakistan’s mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of severe floods have become evident.[

Life with the current load-shedding is becoming unbearable. There is no relief from the menacingly long spells of power outages is in sight. Cities and towns across the country are facing 14 to 18 hours of unscheduled load shedding and still failing to protest which goes to prove patience of the nation.

There is no plausible explanation from any quarter for the phenomenon. Some official sources say that many of the units are unable to generate power because of absence of gas and oil. Six power plants — Chashma, Orient, Saif, Sapphire, Hallmore and Rouche — had not been generating power for several weeks because of unavailability of gas and oil. Hydel production has dipped causing long hours of power outages in major parts of the country.

Pakistan needs 9500MW of electricity. It is presently facing a shortfall of more than 2500MW.

The industrial sector of any country always plays an instrumental role in not only earning foreign exchange but also in providing job opportunities but unfortunately long hours of load shedding has destroyed each and every thing.

In this age of severe competition when most countries are providing concessions and incentives to their industrial sectors, in Pakistan the picture is bleak because every day we face long hours of load shedding.

Pakistan has three sources of energy, namely hydel, thermal (gas/ steam/ furnace oil) and nuclear.

There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA (Water & Power Development Authority), KESC (Karachi Electric Supply Company), IPPs (Independent Power Producers) and PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission).

The break-up of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of June-2008) is as follows:

WAPDA

WAPDA                              Hydel
Tarbela                                 3478MW
Mangla                                 1000MW
Ghazi–Barotha                     1450MW
Warsak                                   243MW
Chashma                                184MW
Dargai                                      20MW
Rasul                                        22MW
Shadi-Waal                              18MW
Nandipur                                  14MW
KurramGarhi                             4MW
Renala                                        1MW
Chitral                                          MW
Jagran (AK)                            30 MW

    Total Hydel ==>           6,461 MW

WAPDA Thermal
Gas Turbine Power Station, Shahdra                                59  MW
Steam Power Station, Faisalabad                                    132   MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Faisalabad                          244   MW
Gas Power Station, Multan                                             195   MW
Thermal Power Station, Muzaffargarh                         1350   MW
Thermal Power Station, Guddu                                    1655  MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Kotri                                  174  MW
Thermal Power Station, Jamshoro                                  850  MW
Thermal Power Station, Larkana                                    150  MW
Thermal Power Station, Quetta                                        35  MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Panjgur                               39  MW
Thermal Power Station, Pasni                                         17  MW

    Total Thermal                           ==>                      4811  MW

WAPDA’s Total Hydel + Thermal capacity is  ==>   11,272 MW 

Karachi Electric Supply Company
Thermal Power Station, Korangi                                         316  MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi                                    80  MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE                                       100  MW
Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim                                   1260  MW

Total (KESC)                                              ==>                   1756  MW

Independent Power Producers (IPPs)

Hub Power Project                                                                    1292 MW
AES Lalpir Ltd, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar                             362 MW
AES Pak Gen, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar                                365 MW
Altern Energy Ltd, Attock                                                             29 MW
Fauji Kabirwala Power Company, Khanewal                             157 MW
Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd, Korangi                                                 136 MW
Habibullah Coastal Power Limited                                              140 MW
Japan Power Generation, Lahore                                                 120 MW
Kohenoor Energy Limited, Lahore                                              131 MW
Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki                                                    232 MW
Rousch Power, Khanewal                                                            412 MW
Saba Power Company, Sheikhupura                                            114 MW
Southern Electric Power Company Limited, Raiwind                 135 MW
Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi                                                    126 MW
Uch Power Limited, Dera Murad Jamali, Nasirabad                   586 MW
Attock Gen Limited, Morgah Rawalpindi                                    165 MW
Atlas Power, Sheikhupura                                                             225 MW
Engro Energy Limited, Karachi                                                     —– MW
Kot Addu Power Company Limited (Privatized)                        1638 MW

Total  (IPPs)                                       ===>                                6365 MW

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
KANUPP                                                                                         137  MW
CHASNUPP-1                                                                                 325  MW

Total (Nuclear)                                  ===>                                     462  MW
 
Hydel electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between minimum of 2,414 MW and maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.

Total Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan (including all sources) is 19,855 MW and the electricity demand (as of April 2010) is 14,500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10,000 MW.

So it is obvious that these 15-20 hrs power shutdowns in most parts of the country are not because of the lack of generation capacity but due to the incompetency of the present government.

The Power generation companies are not buying furnace oil from PSO by saying they don’t have money to do that but Pakistanis are all paying for electricity that is generated from furnace oil.

This is the reason that top refineries like PRL are operating at 40% of their capacities.

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Definition: – It can be defined as weakening or failure of system which brings a system to become poor to deliver the required or almost failure to required deliverance.

Or simply

Weakening or failure of system to deliver i.e. it is simply sickness of the system to deliver the required to different levels of failure

Main Causes of Corruption

  1. Nonexistence of clear discrimination between right and wrong in society
  2. Injustice
  3. Insecurity
  4. Fear of survival
  5. Illogical system
  6. Unnecessary and over expanded Government machinery
  7. Under paid manpower in public and private sector
  8. Nonexistence of accountability
  9. Lacking in social and Moral Values
  10. Escalation in prices of goods in market
  11. Money devaluation
  12. Greed

Main Forms of Corruption

  1. Nonexistence of clear discrimination between right and wrong in society
  2. lies
  3. Injustice
  4. Placing of incompetent, characterless and ineligible persons in public and private sectors i.e. without comprehensive checks and merit according to laws and rules
  5. Undue pressures to influence for wrong by the authoritative people
  6. Misuse of powers
  7. Mala fide intentions
  8. Theft through white collar crime (Forgery, fudge and false)
  9. Lack of scrutiny
  10. Imitation
  11. Difficulties and obstacles to seek easy, comprehensive, true and timely justice with due respect and comfort
  12. Torture
  13. Bribery
  • Bribery against wrong
  • Bribery against right

Impacts of injustice

  1. Injustice is the basic key which spoils the whole system and results in a corrupt and spoiled society
  2. It spoils the ideology of any society resulting sick and criminal behaviours of people
  3. Basic cause of insecurity which promotes people to gain any kind of powers to survive by any means and to seek strength of protection for them selves, for their dependents and loved ones because of defective, illogical, unjust, inhuman and unethical society. As availability of material resources is the first easy source of strength in any sick society like our society of Pakistan without comprehensive social justice and without being a comprehensive welfare society

Few important forms of comprehensive injustices

  1. Social injustice
  2. Financial injustice
  3. Moral injustice
  4. Physical injustice
  5. Illogical systems of government machinery
  6. Non-existence of writ of law
  7. Non-existence of fair accountability

Solutions to resolve the issues of corruption in society

  1. Better System of Government and leadership
  2. Writ of law
  3. Reduction in unnecessary government machinery
  4. Capacity building of system and human resource
  5. Rational and good remunerations to government employees
  6. Reliance to national resources
  7. Boost to private and local enterprises
  8. Whole system of government including laws and rules of country needs to be reviewed by competent, well paid, positive and patriot, law knowing people who should be well educated and experts of laws and rules to revalidate and improve the laws, rules and procedures in totality. All sick laws, rules and procedures need to be improved, changed or destroyed as per need. The rules and laws should be easy to understand, logical and comfortable to implement
  9. Fair, open and speedy trials and disposals of issues and cases according to law, along with accountability (But the accountability should be from top to bottom and not from bottom to top)
  10. No innocent should ever suffer to any limit or be punished in any case. If by mistake it happens that must be compensated to satisfaction of sufferer.
  11. Focus to law of tort should be brought in practice to improve the norms of society as in Europe
  12. Proper and thorough monitoring towards implementation which can only be possible to small sized government machinery and not to over expanded government machinery

Better System of Government

There is no any system of government which fails if not based on injustice and discrimination. Suggestions about the system of government required for Pakistan are as follows

  • Elected Presidential form of Government as per USA but modified according to requirement of our country prepared by the best experts of law having un-doubtful credibility and integrity and should not have any concern with Government or to any political party. As USA constitution and system of Government has close resemblance to System of Government in ancient Islamic States
  • Reduction in Government and system of government
  • Effective implementation of merit and justice in government machinery
  • The three important tiers of government i.e. Legislative Body, Judiciary and Executive should be independent and power full but must have counter checks on each other to be devised in constitution for smooth system of government as well as accountable to each other.
  • Islam has about four main fundamental concepts for the formulation of government
  1. Rule of divines law given by Allah in Quran and further illustrated by Sunnah
  2. Only one competent elected/selected Muslim (Having Education of Highest Level concerning to System of Government i.e must at least possess a valid degree of Law) should be the head of state as in elected Presidential form of Government and not a group as it happens in parliamentary form of Governments. Important Portfolios and Ministries should be separate from Legislative bodies to keep the legislation impartial, neat and clean
  3. The people who have to elect rulers must be educated to some specific level i.e. the voters must be educated to some level. It may be a minimum of matriculate or more. As the Khalifas (Islamic Rulers) were elected or selected by the Shuraas consisting of scholars of the time and not by general public. So only well aware people should play role to elect/select people to form government
  4. The rulers should not have any exemption before the law.

The qualities required by the leadership to come forward

The leaders to come forward must have following set of concepts and slogan

  1. Fear of Allah
  2. Vision
  3. Automated and fair comprehensive justice without any discrimination and without any effort to seek (i.e. At door step on merit without any effort)
  4. Truth
  5. Value of time
  6. Value of competence
  7. Value of hard work
  8. Having concept to boost local and private enterprises
  9. Reliance to national resources
  10. Honest

Corruption can never be reduced without comprehensive justice nor without qualitative leadership to come or brought forward

Humble submission to address corruption and to curtail it gradually the whole system of Pakistan needs review in totality i.e. all the laws, rules and system needs reviewing and all the flaws and defective rules and laws need to be destroyed. All the system needs to be revised and reviewed according to true massage of Islam mainly given in Quran, along with all of system needs to be based on comprehensive justice, reduction in government machinery at every level according to right sizing, the whole system should be based on logic, human nature, rationalism, justice, humanity, love, truth, humbled, vision and support.

     Muslims of the world need “Jihad” of Good Governments & Governance, Comprehensive Justice, Education, Peace, Science & Technology, Boost to Economy, Self-Reliance, Islamic & Moral values, Love, Humanity, Care, Prosperity, Quality of Life and Living Norms, Good relations with other nations based on Principles But not “Jihad” of wars, killings, weapons and hate to reach to a non-corrupt and self-relied “just” states and to become “Darul Islam” for Muslims and Non-Muslims of the World and to prove glory of Islam and Islamisation. It will help our nation and the Muslims of the world to lead the world in glorious manner.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick (BBB),

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

President Abraham Lincoln defined democracy in these words; “It is the government of the people, for the people, by the people” A Welfare Democratic State is obliged to provide food, shelter, education, security and basic health facilities to every citizen of the state. Certainly, these are not the preferences of our governments. Our Federal government, as well as Provincial governments, allot a very meagre amount of their budgets for health, education and other necessities. Our national debt has increased manifold and causing high rate of inflation. It becomes more and more difficult for people to arrange for their necessities due to high inflation. Question is not whether we attain or not such perfect condition but whether we are trying to attain this goal. If our government going on this direction, people will be satisfied that they are not helpless. They can hope that their destiny will be changed in future. Building Motorways and Expressways is good but not at the cost of necessities. CPEC is the best of all and reflective of government’s vision for a prosperous Pakistani nation, but the latest ECC decision to indirectly strangulate the law-abiding and bill-paying common electricity consumers, is not only unfair, intriguing, coercive and initiative of some evil genius misanthropist in the government ranks who seems to be logically vying for a state of unrest and chaos which would be counter-productive for the government itself, because history is witness that such nasty acts always end up in humiliating, and sometimes bloody, ousters of the tyrant rulers. If you want to levy some tax, then do it directly why to include it in a utility bill. All these big projects, referred to above, are meaningless unless we provide basic necessities to every citizen, what to talk of strangulating the masses under one pretext or the other, in the name of such hi-fi projects. We often compare our conditions with developed countries. They reached at this state by going through a long struggle. London was not built overnight. We should choose our own preferences. Developments, through blackmail and without providing necessities may create turmoil and anarchy among people.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick (BBB),

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Our nation needs fair and open accountability of
Leadership
Politician
Judiciary
Lawyers
Army
Bureaucracy
Civil Servants / Public Servant
Business Tycoons
Businessmen
Landlords
Agriculturists
Molvi and Islamic revolutionists
Criminals of society
and
All those who financially grew abnormally, highly illogically since the Pakistan came in to being.
But it must start from top and then may proceed to bottom.
And then all be punished accordingly in public.

About a few thousand top people will be severely punished and recoveries to be made. All loans of nation will be paid off and the nation will become economically stable.
Presidential form of democracy like America is may be the best solution with few amendments as per our need is felt need of time and this parliamentary form of Democratic which is infect a kingdom must be packed for ever.

This parliamentary form of democracy in accordance with Constitution of 1973 is kingdom which provides exemption to all the top portfolios and it applies almost no check and all the powers flows through Chief Executive thus is a kingdom of Chief Executive i.e. Prime Minister and Chief Ministers.

Indiscriminate justice in society should be the prime responsibility and top priority of government as it results best in every field and abolishes poverty, curse and all wrongs in society but it must be ensured by judiciary. As poor governments even can not play wrong if the judiciary be playing their fair and competent role. Only and only qualitative, timely and indiscriminate justice may bring a society on right path.

We must be very clear about right and wrong it may not even be an act or a person and expectations from only Allah as neither any party nor person can change our fate.

 

 

 

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan

Advocate High Court

B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Cell # 03009509948

Islamabad

 

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

BY INCORPORATING BASICS OF LAW PART OF SYLLABUSES AND PRACTICE OF LAW OF TORT &amp; EASEMENT CAN IMPROVE NORMS OF OUR SOCIETY

The basics of Constitution of Pakistan and basic laws must be a compulsory part of every education starting from 6th class onward to last level of education. Also all the concerned Special Laws must also be part of special educations syllabus for their awareness.

Also, frequent and effective practice of Law of Tort and Easement can improve norms of our society as it had played vital role in European Society.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick (BBB),

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

The judiciary and judicial system of Pakistan and AJ&K are needing to be reformed as for judiciary the induction should take place only right from very beginning level of Judiciary as in Army and all the other Civil Services and hence the Articles of Constitutions of Pakistan and AJ&K, which are devising direct induction at higher level of Judiciary on the basis of experience regarding practice of advocacy in Higher Courts and selection by choice are needing to be abolished.

That the initially inducted judicial officers generally have different temperament and attitudes hence they generally remain isolated from society, but their capacity building courses and passing of exams regarding every promotion and their proper scrutiny should also be part of their norms to be judged for continuity and further promotions / elevations. Also at bar level some fair mechanism of approval by concerned bar through silent voting can also be adopted for the suitable ones from among the panel of Judges to be considered for next higher promotion, as the lawyers of concerned Bars generally know better about the judges and their capabilities.
The selection from practicing lawyers must be discouraged as the practicing lawyers have many social ties and personal deep concerns in society of every kind then how by being judge such a person can get out of such social ties and personal concerns of society and can have complete isolation from any such social ties? Also, political and other maneuverings for the appointments and placement of judges are observed, which further politicizes the structure of judiciary badly, which are generally observed in society. Thus, even any good and dynamic lawyer creates a lot pressure over lower Judiciary as well and the Lower Judiciary generally gets suppressed, by predicting that the one may become judge of Higher Judiciary in future and by then be having all the powers over them as well and hence may become revengeful too. Also generally such lawyers by becoming judges behave very poor and play with others by having revengeful attitudes in them regarding their regrets of past by being lawyer and even forget to observe the code of conduct which applies over them, and usually behave like lawyers during arguments in courts as well and forget that they are the judges, who have to hear, listen and observe the cases and instead of them, their judgments should speak in objective sense and not to be subjective.
That when by being a lawyer one keeps on taking vexatious and frivolous stances and malign the facts in their cases to win at any cost by hook or crook, then how by being judge any such person can ever be fair? Also some strict code of conduct over the lawyers needing to be applied not by only the bar but by the judiciary as well and vexatious stances must be punished under Sec. 35-A of CPC as well as due criminal proceedings under PPC be initiated against all such lawyers and their clients.
That the lawyers wear black coats to symbolize their protest against the crimes in society symbolically, but it is a well-established fact that generally the crimes are being protected by the lawyers. So, it can be safely said that in general the lawyers play role of crime protectors instead of protesters against crimes in society, but it is clear by being Muslim that they may not be caught here in this world, but they may never be exempted before Allah. So, to every part of our society we need reforms that we may not be needing angles to run the system in better manner, but general people prove to perform rightly in result of better devised system.
We must see the basic flaws producing any wrong in our society and hence root causes are to be addressed to achieve ultimate better results.

A system of Jury consisting of character full and notable people from among the retired judges, senior lawyers, retired senior bureaucrats, retired senior army officers, journalists, Islamic scholars and notables of society must be introduced in every courts of trials and appeals in Civil as well as Criminal to have check over the Judicial Crimes and Corruption as well as to every case all proceedings before the Courts must have video and audio recordings and must be available if so requested to be able to produce in further proceedings as well and wherever so required as in practice in Canada and most of the European Countries, which is a felt need of society to improve the quality justice in society.
The academic and other records of lawyers must also be re-observed by the Bars and Judiciary as many fake degree holders of LLB or even without any degree are actually plasticizing law and they must be scrutinized by Bar and Judiciary.
The Judiciary must also be held accountable and for any case if for same facts the judgment of Appellate Court differs from the Trial Courts by not applying proper law and remain failure to resolve question of law against the established facts then the Appellate Court must also address such poor judgment by the Trial Court and Lower Courts, even may penalize the Judiciary as well as it applies in all the other Civil Servants, as who so ever is not held accountable never observes due responsibility in discharging their duties. It is astonishing that almost everybody is accountable in our society but only the people who are supposed to be the custodian of law are literally exempt from any accountability and this is the only reason such a noble profession is not getting that importance, trust and worth in our society.
The Judiciary must deliver objective judgments and not the subjective judgments, also in every judgment the root causes must also be addressed to bring permanent betterment in society instead of addressing the only issue in question before the Court, thus the society may start traveling towards right path. Also, the role of lower judiciary in right direction will reduce pressures over the Higher Judiciary. Compensations to parties who prove to be right must also be awarded to discourage the parties on wrong to encourage people for to fight for right. Also the Courts must be bound to strict time frame to provide their Judgments from the launching dates in any case to be processed by the Courts of Law and for to exceed the duration to provide Judgment from launching date of case, the Courts must have to record clear and well justified reasons in Judgments for the delays occurred in delivering delayed judgments and if the reason be not found well justified, then such Judge must be held accountable and must suffer for the undue delay in accordance, hence clear laws in this regard are requiring to be framed.
All the Tribunals which have the appellate Court of the Honorable Supreme Court must never be under Administration of Government but must be the part of Judiciary only.
That for selection of Judiciary, Judicial Officers and regarding all the other selections on merit the guide lines may be had from the procedure laid down in Judicial Appointment Commission (JAC) UK.
May Allah provide us with good and qualitative Leadership, Justice, System and clear sense of discrimination between right and wrong in totality for to become a leading Nation, as we badly lack in all the basic four aspects and every three of four are dragging down the fourth to worst.
If the Courts be delivering indiscriminate and strong objective justices none of the even worst Government could ever deviate from quality governance. Also, an effective mechanism of Alternate Dispute Resolution ADR is requiring to be launched, for better resolutions of cases, to have early judgments and to reduce load from the judiciary as well. Law of Cost of Litigation 2017 for Capital territory Islamabad must be adopted for all Pakistan and AJ&K as well and must be brought under effective use too.
But for so sure all the flaws of any state is the prime responsibility of leadership in power to address and none others.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan
B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Advocate High Court

Brick By Brick (BBB),

Legal Consultancy & Services,

Chamber No. 10, Street No. 5,

Qamar Anayat Raja Block,

F-8 Kachehri,

Islamabad
Cell # 03009509948 / 03438821700 / 03131226888

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

 

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago

Laws are needing to be passed by the Government that every hotel and all the food outlets, bakers and all the other industries producing perishable goods etc. must have an outlets from where the waste or remaining food of good quality be delivered to poor and deserved ones in most respectable manner on at least good quality paper utensils instead of wasting it or be reused to serve the customers by cheating them and it must be monitored by some authority to ensure the quality of deliverance. Even some incentives may be given by the Government to all such hotels, bakeries and industries; also such system regarding other utilities may also be devised i.e. similar mechanisms may also be developed regarding every surplus commodity to facilitate the deserved ones by the use able and valued waste of society to make them (i.e. the most deprived people) to survive in life with convenience and dignity.

Engr. Kamran Hafeez Chohan

Advocate High Court

B.Sc. Civil Engineer & LLB

Owner of

Brick By Brick

Legal Consultancy & Services

Islamabad / Rawalpindi

Cell # 03009509948

Islamabad

Chairman

Manzil-e-Murad Party MMP

Jan 2, 2020 2 years ago